WoodWorks Sizer USA – Change History
This document provides descriptions of all new features, bug fixes, and other changes made to the USA version of the WoodWorks Sizer program since its inception in 1993. The most recent major version of Sizer is Sizer 2019 , released in December 2019. The latest service release is Update 1, released in May 2020. The latest service release for version 11 is Sizer 11.2, released in December 2019.
This file last updated with changes May 25, 2020.
Click on the links below to go to the changes for the corresponding release.
The following problems regarding lateral stability calculations for built-up columns for axial compression design from NDS 220.127.116.11 were introduced with version 12.0 and have been corrected.
As a result, for a 10-foot column with 3-2x6 plies, the slenderness ratio was calculated as 80, causing the column to fail, when it should have been 26.7 and pass.
When the member incorrectly failed for this reason, a screen warning message appears, a red failure warning appears in the design check giving “Axial due to slenderness as the reason, and the axial compression line and combined axial and bending lines indicate the reason for failure. These messages refer to the identical requirement for solid columns from NDS 18.104.22.168.
Note that single-ply width is still checked to determine whether it the strength Fc’ is greater than for single ply than from multi-ply, as per 22.214.171.124 and this cannot be taken advantage of if the slenderness ratio using single-ply width is over 50. The problem was that it was indicating a design failure rather than merely not applying the advantage if it exists.
b) Slenderness Ratio for Lateral Stability Factor CP
In the calculation of the Column Stability factor CP, if the slenderness ratio was greater in the width b direction than the depth d direction, the program used the slenderness ratio calculated for the d direction, and multiplied the result by the Kf factor ordinarily applied to the b direction, instead of using the slenderness factor calculated for the b direction. This typically caused the CP factor to be greater than it should be and overestimated the strength of the column.
In the example from the previous sub-item, the Column Stability Factor CP is shown 0.351 when it should have been 0.261.
If the slenderness ratio in the d direction was greater than that in the b direction, the program behaved as expected.
2. Shutdown When Using Glulam-uniform Southern Pine Materials (Bug 3531)
The letters “SP “have been removed from all the grade combination names for Glulam-Uniform Southern Pine columns and beams, because roughly half of the names were longer than permissible in Sizer. For example, 48 1:10 (N2D10) replaces 48 1:10 (SP N2D10).
Selection of one of these combinations in any program mode would cause arcane warning messages to appear and eventually the program would crash when running design or performing other input operations.
3. Right Cantilever and Fix-Free Column Deflections Due to Applied Moments (Bug 3545)
In the analysis of user-applied moments to right cantilever beam spans and columns with a fixed base and free top, the program was subtracting rather than adding the “fixed-end” deflection to the deflection due to rotation at supports.
As a result, downward deflections at the cantilever can be significantly lower than they should be, so that the maximum deflection that is compared to the deflection limit in the design of the member is too low. For beams that experience uplift at the cantilever, this created larger-than-expected deflections.
For columns, this caused the deflection due to the moment to be applied on the opposite side of the column than it should, creating inaccuracies when combined with deflections from other sources.
As an example, for a beam with a 6-meter middle span and a 2-meter cantilevers on each side and 10 kN-m applied moment at each end of the beam, the cantilever deflections were 3.6 mm on the right end and 10.9 mm on the left end, although these should be the same.
The incorrect deflections could be seen in the Analysis diagrams and in the maximum deflection shown in the Design Check report,and have now been corrected.
Deflections due to applied moments on a left-end cantilever, or other column fixity conditions, were correct.
4. Simpson Hanger Database Update
The program includes the April 2020 update of the Simpson hanger database. Previously the July 2019 version was in use.
Changes described below have been made to load combination descriptors such as D+.75(L+S) that appear in the following places
- the main list and the table of CD factors in the Analysis Results output
- the Critical Load Combinations section of the Design Check output
- Analysis diagram selection controls and drawings.
The compressed format of the descriptors has been expanded to make them the same as they appear in the ASCE 7 and IBC design codes, by adding spaces between symbols and adding a leading zero before factors that are less than 1.0. What was formerly D+.75(L+S) now appears as D + 0.75(L + S)
The compressed descriptor still appears if it is necessary to reduce the length of a long, patterned combination in the Analysis output report, however this rarely occurs.
b) Snow-Only Pattern Combinations (Change 146)
When a patterned snow load is the only load in a load combination, the combination was represented by the single lower-case letter “s” instead of the usual upper-case “S”. It is now S, but the lower-case s is still used in the pattern description for the half-loaded spans, so that what was previously s (pattern: sS) is now S (pattern: sS).
c) IBC and ASCE 7 References in Load Combination List Headers (Change 148)
The program now shows the clause reference numbers 2.4 for ASCE 7 and 1604.3.2 of IBC in the headers to the lists of load combinations in the Analysis results and the Design Check. It also indicates that the ASCE combinations are “Basic” (as opposed to “Strength”).
6. Display of Data in Additional Data Section of Design Check
The following problems regarding the display of data in the Additional Data section of the Design Check output were corrected.
a) Emin when Slenderness Ratio Fails (Bug 3514)
In cases where the slenderness ratio for the calculation of the combined axial and bending check is not calculated because the slenderness ratio fails, in the Emin’ row of the Factors table , the unfactored buckling modulus Emin was was shown as 0.00 million instead of the value corresponding to the material for the member. This has been corrected.
b) Exponentiation Symbol in Weak-axis Bending Stiffness EIy (Change 149)
For members with an oblique angle, the symbol e06 representing 106 was not shown in the after the weak axis bending stiffness EIy. The major axis bending stiffness EI was shown as expected.
WoodWorks released a Version 11.2 at the same time as version Sizer 2019 order that important corrections and other changes were included in a version that implements the previous design codes and standards.
1. Update to NDS 2018 (Feature 230)
The program has been updated to conform the 2018 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, from the 2015 NDS.
a) Custom Incising Factor
NDS 4.3.8 now allows for a custom incising factor Ci based on specific incising patterns. To implement this, the Beam view data group called Modification factors has been split into two boxes, one for Service conditions containing Moisture and Temperature inputs, and one for Treatment containing Incising checkbox, and two inputs for custom MoE and Strengths. These inputs default to the values for incisions limited as in 4.3.8 but can then be changed. The default modulus of elasticity incision is 0.95 and the default for Fb, Fv, Fc and Ft is 0.80.
b) Fire Design Char Rate vs. Char Depth
NDS 2015 Equation 16.2-1 for char rate βeff was based on a nominal one-hour char rate and exposure time and then one would multiply the char rate by the exposure time to get the char depth achar. Now, these two steps have been combined into one equation 16.2-2. Accordingly, the char rate βeff has been removed from the Calculations section of the Design Check results table.
c) SCL Tension Volume Factor
The volume factor CV stored in the database section properties is now applied to tension strength Ft for SCL members, as per NDS 2018 126.96.36.199.
d) Flat Use Factor for Beam and Stringer E and Emin
The flat use factor Cfu for beams and stringers that was previously only in Supplement table 4D are referenced from NDS 188.8.131.52. The program had not been applying the 0.90 factor for No.1 grade members to the moduli of elasticity E and Emin This has been corrected.
e) Redwood Grades
The redwood grades that are not “open grain” have been removed from Table 4D and have been removed from the database by removing the Redwood species and renaming Redwood (o.g) to Redwood.
f) Volume Factor CV for Fb* used for Lateral Stability
NBC 2018 includes a provision in 3.3-6 that the volume factor Cv is to be applied to the value of Fb* for lateral stability factor CL calculations if greater than 1.0 This was already implemented in Sizer 7 in 2006 as per an AWC directive.
g) NDS Link
The link in the Help menu to the .pdf of the on-line NDS on the website has been updated to retrieve NDS 2018.
h) NDS References
The references to the edition of the NDS in the Welcome box, Building Codes box, About Sizer box, and in the Design Check output have been updated to 2018.
2. Update to IBC 2018 (Feature 230)
The program has been updated to conform to the 2018 International Building Code from the 2015 IBC.
a) IBC 1604.3 Note d
As Live roof (Lr) has been added to the load combination given in 1604.3 note d, the 0.5 factor is now applied to make the 0.5 D + Lr, and 0.5 D + 0.75 (L + Lr) combinations. Previously only the 0.5 D + Lr combination was constructed.
Note that for CLT, the dead load factor is now 1.0 rather than 0.5, so that when CLT materials are selected, the checkbox activating this item in load input view reads L + D rather than L + 0.5D and the 1.0 dead factor is applied to the above combinations rather than 0.5.
b) IBC References
The references to the edition of the IBC in the Welcome box, Building Codes box, About Sizer box, and in the Design Check output have been updated to 2018.
3. Update to ASCE 7-16
The program has been updated to conform to the 2016 ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures from the 2010 ASCE 7. This standard is used for Sizer only for load combinations, which are also published in the IBC, and have not changed for this edition of the ASCE 7. The reference to the ASCE 7 in the Building Codes box has been updated to ASCE 7-16.
4. Design Standard Editions in Glulam Design Note (Change 203)
In the Design Note indicating technical references for glulam materials, the edition of ANSI 117 has been updated from 2010 to 2015 and the edition of ANSI A190.1 from 2007 to 2012.
B. Beam and Joist Hanger Database and Design (Feature 226)
The program now includes a database of Simpson Strong-tie joist and beam hangers, allows you to select these hangers as the bearing support member, and automatically selects a hanger if you select Unknown.
1. Hanger Database
The hangers are selected from a database program provided by Simpson, which is incorporated into the Sizer installation.
2. Database Editor and Materials Database
The Species Dialog of database editor and/or the materials database files have been modified to account for the different resistance values for Simpson Hangers based on the material species of both the supporting member (header) and the supported one (the main member being designed by Sizer.)
a) Sawn Lumber and Glulam
For sawn lumber and glulam, the Simpson Hanger resistances are based on the specific gravity of the material. Specific gravity between .42 and .49 is considered S.P.F and above .49 it is Doug-Fir.
A disabled input called Species Group has been added, which shows one of D.Fir-L, Spruce-Pine-Fir or Northern depending on the specific gravity entered. Northern represents specific gravity less than 0.42.
No changes were necessary to the materials database for these materials.
b) Structural Composite Lumber
For structure composite lumber (SCL), the input is enabled and called SCL Type, and offers the choices LVL - DF/SP, LVL – SPF, PSL, and LSL. The existing default LVL database file has been modified to be LVL - DF/SP.
For structure composite lumber (SCL), the input is enabled and called Flange Species with choices D.Fir-L and Spruce-Pine-Fir. The existing default I-Joist database file has been modified to be D.Fir-L.
All inputs for this have been added to the Supports for Bearing Design data group.
Simpson hanger has been added to the support Type input list. The existing Hanger choice is renamed Other hanger.
Simpson hangers are not available for oblique members but are available for sloped members.
b) Applies to…
The selection of Simpson hanger applies to end supports only, and selection and design will be done only for end supports only. If All supports or any other selection that includes interior supports is selected, then then ordinary Hangers are used for the interior supports.
The Material changes to Header when Simpson hangers are selected, shows materials from both beams and joists. Steel members are not included in the list.
This shows the species for selected Material, as it currently does.
The Grade field is re-tasked to show the section sizes for the selected species, in a b x d format.
f) Bearing at Support End
Bearing at support end is invisible.
A checkbox indicates that the header is a ledger, which is a member assumed to be affixed to a hard material such as concrete so that nails in the face flange cannot penetrate more than the member thickness. It is active for lumber and SCL materials only.
A checkbox indicates that the header is a nailer, which is a member assumed to be affixed to the top of a member of another material such as a steel I-beam, so that they lie on the flat rather than upright like other members.
i) Bearing Length
Bearing length is disabled and shows Unknown when the hanger selection is Unknown, and the hanger bearing length from the Simpson database otherwise.
j) Bearing Width
Bearing width is disabled and shows Same as beam or Same as joist.
k) Point Load Length and Width
These inputs are unaffected by the hanger selection.
l) Hanger Options
The For unknown bearing length… data group is renamed Hanger options when Simpson Hangers are selected. All existing inputs are invisible, and the inputs described below are included instead.
m) Hanger Style
An unlabelled input box has the selections All, Face mount, Top flange, used to filter the hanger list returned by the Simpson database program.
The model input lists the available hanger models given the selections for main member and header, ordered by the cost index value supplied by Simpson.
It is headed by the choice Unknown. Only Unknown will appear if any data needed to select the hangers are not available, such as main member size or no. of plies.
For sloped members, the program lists appropriate angled hangers, showing Simpson’s special information code like SLU5, meaning 5-degree upwards slope.
The fasteners list box used to distinguish those hanger models that have different capacities for different fasteners used on one or more of the flanges of the hanger. It is only when a hanger is selected that has this situation, to allow you to differentiate the repeated hanger model.
The fasteners are designated as Face, Side, or Top, according to which of which of these flanges have differing fastener specifications. If two or more of the flanges have different fastener selections, then the following precedence is used Top, Face, Side.
p) Cost Index and Resistance
The hanger resistance assuming duration factor CD = 1 and the cost index of the selected hanger are shown in text fields labelled Resistance and Cost index, respectively.
a) Bearing Design
For each load combination, the program queries the database for the resistance corresponding to the load duration of that load combination and uses that for bearing capacity of both the main member and the supporting member. It is then compared to the factored reaction at that support.
The Simpson database resistance includes the bearing factor CB, so Sizer does not calculate or apply a CB factor.
b) Uplift Design
For those load combinations that have an uplift reaction on one or more of the Simpson hanger supports, the program compares the uplift resistance to the factored uplift reaction. Note that it is only Simpson hangers that have uplift design; it is not otherwise incorporated in Sizer.
For load combinations including wind, earthquake, or live loads without snow loads, the program selects a resistance according to the load duration. For dead-only combinations (CD = 0.9), snow load combinations (CD = 1.25), or roof live/construction combinations (CD = 1.25), the resistance for live loads (CD = 1.0) is used then multiplied by the load duration factor. Note that except for dead-only loads, this could lead to non-conservative design; however, these load combinations rarely result in uplift loading.
c) Non-S-P-F or Doug-Fir Materials
For materials species with a specific gravity less than 0.42, the lower limit for Spruce-Pine-Fir, the resistance is multiplied by the ratio of the specific gravity to 0.42. This procedure was authorized by Simpson Strong-tie.
d) Design for Unknowns
When Unknown is selected, the program cycles through all possible fasteners in order from lowest to highest cost index, until it finds one that passes both the uplift and the bearing design criteria.
e) Min Required Bearing Length
To determine the minimum required bearing length used in determining the limits of the design span; the member is considered to be supported by a generic hanger or a “non-wood” member; i.e. as if it were supported by a steel plate, and the compressive strength of the main member is used to calculate the min. required length.
f) Effect on Beam Design
After a hanger is selected, the bearing length determined by the flange length B of the hanger and the calculated minimum required bearing are used to determine a new design span, and the beam re-analysed and designed
a) Materials Specification
Under the beam material specification, for each support with a distinct Simpson hanger, a string of information is output giving the model number, a special information code giving for example the angle of the hanger used for sloped members, the fasteners for each flange, and, if necessary, whether backer blocks or web stiffeners are required.
b) Reactions and Bearing Table
In the Reactions and Bearing table, the fields for Cb, Cb support, and Fcp sup are irrelevant and disabled. The support resistance shows the factored resistance of the selected hanger. The Length shows the length B of the bottom flange of the hanger.
If any of the supports with a Simpson Hanger experience uplift, then rows are added for Uplift resistance and the KD factor used for the critical uplift load combination.
c) Failure Warning Message
If the program fails for uplift design, a new design criterion is added to the red failure warning message in the Design check output called Uplift restraint.
C. Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Design (Feature 214)
The program now implements Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) design as per NDS 2018 Chapter 10 and APA PRG 320-19. Additional sources for specific design procedures are described below.
CLT wall, roof and floor panels are implemented in Sizer in Beam/Column modes and in Concept Mode. These panels are composed of alternating layers of softwood lumber laminations, with the laminations in one layer at a right angle to those in the adjacent layers.
1. CLT Layer Orientation and Design Axes
In what follows, the “longitudinal layers” refers to those CLT layers oriented the same way as the outermost layers, and “the transverse layers” to the other layers internal to the panel. For floor panels, roof panels, and wall panels loaded laterally, loading in the “longitudinal direction” means that support is perpendicular to the longitudinal layers. This is also referred to as loading along the major strength axis. Loading in the “transverse direction” means support is perpendicular to the transverse layers and loading is along the minor strength axis.
Some CLT properties therefore have four values relating to the material used in the longitudinal and transverse layers, and the value of the property when loaded in the longitudinal and transverse directions.
For wall panels loaded axially, layers in the “longitudinal direction” means layers oriented vertically, and the “transverse direction” means those layers oriented horizontally. For lateral loading on wall panels, major axis design occurs when the outermost layers are vertical.
2. Material Database
A CLT database file, uclt.cws has been created and added to the installation. This database file can be edited with Database Editor.
The Species corresponding to those described as composing standard layups given in PRG 320 Annex A
S-P-F – Spruce-pine-fir
D.Fir-L – Douglas fir-Larch
Northern – Eastern Softwoods, Northern Species, or Western Woods
S. Pine – Southern Pine
Note that all these species correspond to layups with both the transverse and longitudinal layers the same. When making a custom CLT database file with layers of different species, you could create a new species called e.g. S-P-F/Northern.
These are the designations E1, E2, E3, E4, V1, V2, V3, listed as Layups in PRG 320 Annex A, Tables A1 and A2, but are technically CLT grades and appear as such in the CLT grading stamp. They specify the species and grade of lumber used in the alternating transverse and longitudinal CLT layers. Strictly speaking, a layup also specifies the thicknesses of the layers.
All sections are assumed to be 12” wide, corresponding to the arbitrary design width. The depths include are from the following sources:
i. PRG 320
The sections in PRG 320 Annex A Table A2:
- 4-1/8”, 6-7/8”, and 9-5/8” (105, 175, and 245 mm) depths composed of 1-3/8“ layers throughout.
ii. Manufacturers Sizes
The following sizes produced by major CLT manufacturers are also included to provide a larger array of default choices:
- 3-7/16”, 5-1/2”, 7-9/16”, and 9-5/8” ( 87, 139, 191, and 243 mm) composed of 1-3/8“ longitudinal layers and 0.67” transverse layers.
- 12-3/8” (315 mm) composed of 1-3/8“ layers throughout.
Please note that the strength properties for these sizes do not correspond to those from any manufacturer; they are the strength properties for the PRG 320 grades
d) Species Properties
The only species property is weight, used for self-weight of the member, in lb/ft3.
e) Grade Properties
The following properties in are defined in psi. for each CLT grade for the materials used in the longitudinal layers and the transverse layers. They can be entered in the Grade dialog of Database Editor:
- Bending strength Fb
- Strength in axial compression Fc
- Strength in axial tension Ft
- Rolling shear strength Fs
- Modulus of Elasticity E
These properties correspond to those in Table A1 of PRG 320. Sizer uses the Shear Analogy Model to convert them to the design capacities and (FbS)eff, (EI)eff , and Vs shown in Table A2.
Compressive strength perpendicular to the grain Fcp is also defined as a grade property for use in bearing design and is the Fcp from the lumber used in the longitudinal layers.
f) Section Properties
Section properties include:
- actual and nominal panel depth in inches. For the standard CLT database, these sizes are the same, although the nominal depth is expressed in fractional format and the actual depth in decimal.
- number of layers and thickness of transverse and longitudinal layers. Note that neither Database Editor nor Sizer verifies that the thicknesses of the layers sum to the panel thickness; it is your responsibility to ensure the data entered are consistent.
- An option to have 2 parallel layers consecutively as the outermost layers at each side of the panel for extra strength in longitudinal loading.
3. User Input – Panel Specification
Unless otherwise indicated, the following changes have been made to the input of materials and panel configuration in the Beam Input form, Column Input form, and Concept Mode Design Groups
a) Member Types
i. Beam and Column Modes
In Beam Mode, the member types Floor panel and Roof panel are added. For Column Mode, Wall panel has been added.
ii. Concept Mode
In Concept Mode, the Group Type box in the Joist Design Groups dialog which previously contained buttons for Roof joists and Floor joists now has four choices – Roof, Floor, Joist, Panel, of which you select two.
The Group Type box has been added to the Wall Design Groups and contains Wall panel and Wall joist.
Initial default groups have been created called Wall-Panel1, Roof_Panel1, and Floor_Panel1, and subsequent additions increment the number at the end.
b) Species and Grade
The species and grade come from the database choices described above.
Width input is disabled and set to 1000 mm for metric and 12” for imperial. CLT design assumes a fixed strip of that width.
Depths are from the sections in the database. It is not possible to enter a custom depth; if you wish to have a CLT panel of a different depth than listed, it is necessary to construct a layup in Database editor.
In Beam and Column modes, the Plies input is renamed Layers, is disabled, and shows the number of CLT layers in the layup corresponding to the depth.
f) Panel Orientation
A new input Panel orientation includes the choices Longitudinal and Transverse. Longitudinal means that the outermost layers are parallel to the member span; Transverse that they are perpendicular. Design using the major strength axis is performed for Longitudinal, and the minor axis for Transverse.
g) Fire-exposed Sides
Only 1 exposed side for fire design is available.
h) Fire Protection
1- or 2-ply 12.7- or 15.9-mm gypsum wallboard fire protection is available.
A checkbox in Beam Input view allows you to apply the 20% vibration span increase for non-structural elements from CSA O86 A.8.5.3. It is available only for multiple spans.
j) Supporting Member Design
The following pertains to the Supports for bearing design input in Beam and Column Mode,
i. Floor and Roof Panels
CLT roof and floor panels can be supported by hangers, sill plates, beams, walls, and CLT wall panels. The bearing width input is disabled and shows the one-meter or one-foot design width. When supported by a wall panel, the list of panel depths is given as the bearing length choices.
ii. Wall Panels
CLT wall panels can be supported by sill plates and CLT floor panels. When supported by a sill plate, the bearing length is assumed to be the panel width, i.e. continuous. When supported by a floor panel, the wall panel width or depth an be used as the bearing length. The panel width indicates continuous support.
k) Lateral Support
The following applies to Beam and Column modes. For Concept mode, lateral support checkbox selections have no effect if not relevant to the member type.
i. Floor and Roof Panels
Lateral support input is disabled for CLT roof and floor panels, as the panel is self-supporting laterally and there is no CP factor calculation for CLT.
For wall panels, lateral support spacing on the Width b face, i.e. the length of the wall panel, is disabled, along with the associated Ke input, as the panel is self-supporting laterally in that direction. The spacing on the d face remains enabled for calculation of the column stability factor CL.
In Beam mode, the input for oblique angle has been disabled, so that only CLT roof panels supported by beams or walls running parallel to the roof ridge can be modelled directly by Sizer, by using the slope angle.
If the support runs from the roof to the ridge, the one-foot design width is rotated relative to the load, and Sizer’s oblique angle analysis for beams does not apply to planar panels.
If you have such a support condition, is necessary to model the roof panel as a horizontal panel and modify the input loads accordingly. In such a situation, snow loads that are assumed to be oriented vertically over the projected area of the panel should be multiplied by the cosine of the slope squared, and dead loads by the cosine of slope angle. Wind pressures that are assumed to act perpendicular to the surface need not be modified.
m) Repetitive Member
The checkbox to indicate that the member is a repetitive member is disabled, as it does not apply to CLT.
In Beam View, all inputs related to Notches are disabled, as there is no design guidance for CLT notches.
o) Moisture Conditions
The Beam and Column modes, the input for Moisture Conditions is set to Dry and disabled. Refer to Modification Factors, below. In Concept mode, the Dry service checkbox selection has no effect.
In Beam and Column modes, the Inputs for Incising and Fire-retardant treatment are disabled. Refer to Modification Factors, below.
3. User Input – Loads
The Width field, when shown, is disabled and shows one foot or one meter, the arbitrary design width of the member.
b) Area and Line Loads
Area loads are equivalent to line loads, as the line load is assumed to be distributed over the one-foot or one-meter width of the member. The input magnitude can be equally interpreted as a plf line load along the 1-unit width, or a psf area load.
c) Point Loads
Point loads are assumed to be distributed over the one-foot or one-meter width of the member. You can show the point load as a plf line load using the existing Enter point load as UDL setting.
d) Beam Support for Area Loads
As for floor joists, the Beam Supports area load setting is disabled.
e) Column Load Face
The Load Face input is disabled and set to Width b, as the assumption is the one-meter or one-foot design width is loaded, and there is no in-plane wall loading.
f) Default Creep Factor
The default creep factor for long-term deflection is set to 2.0 for CLT design. rather than the usual 1.5, as per NDS 3.5.2.
Bending moment and shear design for standard CLT panels listed in PRG-320 is in accordance with PRG-320 Table A2. For custom panel lay-ups and for reduced sections for fire design, the program uses the Shear Analogy Method given in the following sources
- FPInnovations CLT Handbook, 2013 Edition (referred to as CLT Handbook), Chapter 3, Structural and Chapter 8, Fire
- CSA O86-14 Engineering design in wood (the Canadian design standard, referred to as O86), Chapter 8 and Appendix A8
This Shear Analogy Method also yields the results for standard sections that are shown in Table PRG 320 Table A2.
Axial and combined axial and bending design of wall panels, bearing design, and fire design are in accordance with the NDS. Application of axial design procedures from the NDS to fire design is described in the CLT Handbook.
a) Modification Factors
The modification factors applied to CLT design are given in NDS Table 10.3.1 – The Load Duration Factor CD, Temperature Factor Ct, Bearing Area Factor Cb, and Column Stability Factor CP
Table 10.3.1 also includes the following factors which have no effect on CLT floor, roof, or wall panel design in Sizer:
i. Moisture Factor CM
NDS 10.3.3 says that information on moisture factors is supplied by manufacturers, and as most manufacturers do not recommend wet service, the program assumes dry moisture conditions and a CM = 1.0.
ii. Beam Stability Factor CL
CLT floor and roof panels are continuously laterally supported on both edges, as the one-foot design width is supported by the rest of the panel. CLT wall panels are also continuously supported. Lateral support spacing is considered on the Depth d face for wall panels for the CP factor for axial compression, but this is not the direction for lateral support for out-of-plane bending design. The one-foot design width on the b face is continuously supported.
Effective stiffness (EI)eff is used bending moment resistance, calculation of panel deflection and vibration. It is calculated using the Shear Analogy Method, given in O86 184.108.40.206 and in the CLT Handbook 3.3.1, Equation 24.
EIeff = b ( ∑ Ei ti3/12 + ∑ Ei ti zi2 ),
- the summation i is over all the layers for the major strength axis (longitudinal loading), and over all but the outermost layers for the minor strength axis (transverse loading).
- ti is the thickness of the layer
- For layers parallel to loading, Ei is the modulus of elasticity E as listed in PRG 320 Table A1
- For layers transverse to loading, Ei = E /30 (PRG 320, Table A1, Note d)
- zi is the distance from the center of the layer to the neutral axis. For symmetric CLT panels, the neutral axis is the mid-point of the panel depth.
i. Fire-reduced sections
For fire-reduced sections, transverse layers that are the final partially charred layer and are thus the outermost layer on the charred side of the panel are not included in the summation.
The calculation of the neutral axis ỹ is given in Equation 8 of Chapter 8 of the CLT Handbook as follows
ỹ = ∑ yi Ei ti / ∑ Ei ti
where yi is the distance from the unexposed side to the centre of the layer.
As Ei in the transverse layers is effectively zero when compared to the longitudinal Ei , this reduces to Equation 9
ỹ = ∑ yi ti / ∑i ti
where the summation is over longitudinal layers only.
ii. Double Outermost Layers
Double outermost layers are treated as a single layer in this calculation, on the assumption that the lamination between these layers is at least as strong in bending as the wood itself, and the two layers act as a unit.
The factored bending moment resistance for the major axis strength direction is
M’ = 0.85 CD Ct (FbS)eff,f,0
and for the minor axis direction is
M’ = CD Ct (FbS)eff,f,90,
where the values of (FbS)eff are those listed in table A-2 of the PRG 320. For custom CLT materials, and for fire design, (FbS) eff is calculated using O86 220.127.116.11:
(FbS) eff = α Fb Seff
Seff = 2 (EI)eff / E h
- h is the panel depth for major axis loading, and the panel depth minus the thickness of the outermost layers for the minor axis.
- α is 0.85 for major axis loading and 1.0 for minor axis.
- Fb, (EI)eff, and E are evaluated for the longitudinal layers when loading is along the major strength axis, and for the transverse layers when loading is along the minor axis. Fb and E are found in PRG 320 Table A1.
- (EI)eff is given in the section on Deflection, below.
Note that the CLT Handbook Chapter 3, Section 2.1, Equations 1 and 2 for transverse loading uses the full panel loading depth rather then the reduced depth, and the Fb of the outermost layer rather than the transverse layers. The CSA method was used because that is the approach used to generate (FbS)eff in the current PRG 320.
i. Fire-reduced sections
(a) Final charred layer
The depth used in the calculation of effective section modulus Seff does not include the final partially charred layer on the exposed side if is transverse to the axis of loading.
(b) Calculation of Seff
The calculation of Seff considers the change in the location of the neutral axis as follows, from CLT Handbook, chapter 8, section 18.104.22.168, equation 13:
Seff = (EI)eff / E ( hf – ỹ)
- hf is the fire-reduced effective panel section depth
- ỹ is the location of the neutral axis of the fire-reduced section, as described in the section on Effective Stiffness, above,
- EIeff is also modified for fire design as described in Effective Stiffness
(c) Adjustment Factor
The fire adjustment factor of 2.85 from Table 1.2.2 is applied.
d) Shear Resistance
The rolling shear resistance Vs is checked:
Vs’ = CD Ct Vs
where the values of Vs are those listed in table A-2 of the PRG. For custom CLT layups, and for fire design, Vs is adapted from O86 22.214.171.124
Vs = 2/3 A Fs
A is the gross cross-sectional area for loading on the major axis, and for the minor axis it is the cross-sectional area minus the area of the outermost layers.
Fs is the rolling shear resistance, which is assumed to be the same for longitudinal and transverse laminations. If you have a custom CLT material with differing Fs for transverse vs. longitudinal layers, it is recommended to use the lower Fs as the material rolling shear resistance.
This method conservatively assumes that the maximum shear in the member cross section occurs in a transverse layer, where rolling shear governs, as rolling shear strength Fs is typically much lower than shear strength Fv. For custom CLT materials with higher Fs than Fv, it is recommended to enter the Fv value in the database as Fs.
i. Fire Design
The program applies an adjustment factor of 2.75 to the rolling shear strength Fs, from AWC Technical Report 10, Table 1.4.2, as it is not listed in NDS Table 16.2.2.
The calculation of the gross cross-sectional area does not include final partially charred layer if is transverse to the axis of loading.
ii. Double Outermost Layers
For the unusual case of design in the transverse direction with double outermost layers, both layers at the top and the bottom of the panel are omitted from the calculation of A.
e) Axial Design
Axial design for CLT wall panels uses considers only the layers in the longitudinal direction. Note that these layers may be the “transverse layers” in terms of defining the panel layup, if the outermost layers are horizontal. Therefore, in what follows,
- Aeff is the cross-sectional area of the layers oriented longitudinally (axially)
- Ieff is the moment of inertia of the layers oriented longitudinally
- Fc and Ft are the compressive strengths of the layers oriented longitudinally.
- Double outermost layers are neglected for transversely oriented panels, and both are included for longitudinally oriented panels.
Axial design for CLT wall panels uses NDS 3.8.1 with the net section area for calculation of tensile stress ft being the cross-sectional area of the layers in the longitudinal direction multiplied by the one-foot design width.
(a) Combined Axial and Bending
NDS Eqns. 3.9-1 and 3.9-2 are used for CLT combined axial tension and bending design, with the Fb used in determining Fb* and Fb** being for the laminations in the longitudinal (axial) direction. The 0.85 factor for conservatism that was applied to the value of (FbS)eff in PRG 320 Table A2 is also applied to Fb* and Fb** for major axis design (wall panels with outer vertical longitudinal layers).
Note that for CLT, Fb* = Fb** = Fb, as the Cv and CL factors are not applicable to CLT design in Sizer.
Axial compression is design is as per NDS 3.6 with net section area for calculation of compressive stress ft being the cross-sectional area of the layers in the longitudinal (axial) direction multiplied by the one-foot design width.
(a) Slenderness Ratio
The slenderness ratio is calculated as per NDS Appendix H., which says r √12 can be substituted for the depth d, where r is the radius of gyration = √ (I/A), so the slenderness ratio is as given in in CLT Handbook, Chapter 8, Section 126.96.36.199, Equation 16:
Note that this slenderness ratio is used only to determine whether the panel is under the limit of 50 in NDS 188.8.131.52, for CLT it is not used in the calculations for the column or beam stability factors.
The column buckling resistance PcE is required for the alternative formulations from the NDS Commentary for the column stability factor CP and for combined axial and bending design.
le is the effective length between lateral supports, which is usually KeL for wall panels, L being the panel height, and (EI) app-min is discussed in the next section.
(i) Stiffness Used for Buckling Calculations (EI) app-min’
(EI) app-min’ is the factored effective stiffness modified for shear deflection. Although the E for pure bending is used to derive Emin for other materials, NDS Commentary C10.3.7 refers to “significant shear deformation that can occur between the parallel and perpendicular CLT laminations”.
EIapp is determined from EIeff using NDS Equation 10.4-1, then the formula from NDS Appendix Eqn. D-4 and Commentary Eqn. C4.2.4-1, is applied to get (EI) app-min. Finally the adjustment factors from NDS Table 10.3.1 ( or Table 16.2.2. for fire design) are applied to get EIapp-min’.
Note that Eqn. D-4 that is ordinarily applied to E to determine Emin includes a 1.03 factor to convert to pure bending, that is, to factor out the decrease in the published E from the true E to account for shear deflection. This factor has been included in (EI)app-min even though it is intended to include shear deflection.
Examples in the CLT Handbook and the AWC Technical Report 10 for fire design include the 1.03 factor, so it is retained in Sizer as well even though it is contrary to the intention of C10.3.7. Note that the lamination E values used to create EIeff include the 1/1.03 factor for shear deflection, so this just serves to eliminate this redundancy for buckling design.
(ii) Ks Factor for Column Buckling
The Ks factor in Table 10.4.1.1 used to determine EIapp for column buckling is derived using the following expression
and then substituting the expression for PcE given earlier; i.e. PcE-app = π2 (EI)app / (KeL) 2 and PcE-eff = π2 (EI)eff. / (KeL) 2 . κ is a standard factor for section shape, which equals 1.2. for rectangles.
If you then isolate EIapp on the left-hand side, and compare with NDS Equation 10.4-1, which is
you find that
Ks = κ ( π / Ke )2
The values 11.8 and 23.7 for Ks in Table 10.4.1.1 are derived using the “recommended design” row from NDS Table G1 for Ke , for pinned-pinned and fixed-fixed columns, respectively.
Sizer allows pinned-fixed, pinned-pinned, and fixed-free columns, and allows you to enter your own Ke value, so Ks is calculated with the above formula and the Ke values that you input. The default values Ke of 0.8, 1.0, and 2.1, respectively, yield Ks values of 18.50, 11.84, and 2.68.
(c) Column Stability Factor CP
For CLT wall panels, the alternative formulation Eqn. C3.7.1-1 from NDS Commentary C3.7.1, is used instead of Equation 3.7-1. This equation is also given in the CLT Handbook, Chapter 8, Section 184.108.40.206, Equation 16.
- Pc* = Fc* Aeff = axial compressive resistance
- Fc * = Fc factored with all adjustment factors except CP
- c = 0.9 for CLT
- PcE is given in subsection (b) above.
(d) Combined Axial and Bending
For combined axial and bending design, the program uses the formula from NDS Commentary C15.4-5, rather than equations 15.4-1 to 15.4-4 that is used for other materials. This equation is also given in CLT Handbook, Chapter 8, Section 220.127.116.11, Equation 18:
- P is the axial load in lbs
- P’ is the axial resistance = Fc’ Aeff
- M is the maximum moment
- Δ is the maximum out-of-plane deflection, including load eccentricity
- PcE is the buckling resistance given in a subsection (b) above
iii. Axial Fire Design
(a) Adjustment Factors
From NDS Table 16.2.2, the fire strength adjustment factors of 2.58 for fc and 2.85 for ft are applied. for
(b) Effective Area
The effective area used to determine design stresses fc and ft , the slenderness ratio, and axial compressive resistance Pc* is that of the fire-reduced cross section.
(c) Effective Stiffness
The effective stiffness EIeff used in determining the buckling resistance PcE is calculated using the fire-reduced section as described in Effective Stiffness, above.
(d) Effective Moment of Inertia
The effective moment of inertia Ieff used for the slenderness factor is calculated using the reduced section.
(e) Out-of-Plane Deflection
The value of the out-of-plane deflection used for combined axial and bending includes the load eccentricity, that is, the distance from the location of the axial load to the centroid of the fire-reduced section. For this reason, combined-axial-and-bending compression design is always calculated for fire design, even when there was initially no load eccentricity or lateral loads.
f) Bearing Design
Bearing design is identical to that for beams or for columns, using the input bearing lengths and widths. The bearing length factor Cb is applied to CLT bearing design as per Table NDS 10.3.1.
i. Floor and Roof Panels
For floor and roof panels, this implies a bearing length that is the width of whatever is supporting the member, and the corresponding Cb factor.
For the supporting member it means a bearing length that is the one-meter or one-foot design width, which means Cb = 1.0, as it should be for continuous support. .
ii. Wall Panels
For wall panels supported by sill plates, the sill plate bearing length is the one-meter or one-foot design width, so Cb = 1.0.
For wall panels supported by floor panels, you can choose to use the one meter design width for cases that the floor is continuously supported beneath the wall, or you can choose to use the wall depth, for cases that the beam supports the wall without a continuous support below. In this case, a Cb factor is calculated.
g) Fire Design
Fire design is in accordance with NDS 16.2. Refer to previous sections for changes to specific design procedures for fire design.
i. Char Rate and Depth
The char depth is calculated using Eqn. 16.2-3. then multiplied by 1.2 as per 16.2-4 to get the effective char depth used to reduce the section depth for design.
Equation 16.2-3 calculates the number of layers that will fully burn during the exposure time, using an increased char rate for the fully burned layers to account for the effect of lamination, then adds the char depth of the final partially charred layer using the usual char rate.
ii. Inclusion of Final Charred Layer
For fire-reduced sections, transverse layers that are the final partially charred layer and are thus the outermost layer on the exposed side of the panel are not included in the following calculations
- Effective section modulus Seff, for bending moment design
- Effective stiffness EIeff, for bending moment and axial compression design
- Gross cross-sectional area for A for shear design
iii. Modified Calculations
As described in the previous sections, the following values are calculated differently for fire design to account for the modified geometry of the section due to charring:
- Effective section modulus Seff, for bending moment design
- Effective stiffness EIeff for bending moment, axial compression design, and combined axial and bending design
- Effective cross-sectional area for Aeff for axial tension and compression design and the slenderness ratio check
- Effective moment of inertia Ieff for the slenderness ratio check
- Column axial load eccentricity used in combined-axial-and-bending design
Refer to the specific procedure, above, for more details.
iv. Adjustment Factors.
The “design stress to member strength” factor given in NDS Table 16.2.2. is applied to fire design of CLT panels. The only other applicable factor from this table is the column stability factor CP.
Refer to the specific design criterion, above, for more details.
v. Double Outermost Layers
Double outermost layers are treated as separate layers in the calculation of char rate using Eqn. 16.2-3 but are considered as a single layer of double thickness for bending moment design. The double layer is considered when determining whether the final outermost exposed charred layer is a transverse layer, and in determining cross sectional areas for shear and axial design.
a) True Stiffness
True panel stiffness for deflection calculations is the effective stiffness (EI)eff described in 4.b) above. (EI)eff is used in NDS Equation 10.4-1 for apparent stiffness EIapp that includes an approximation of the effect of shear deflection.
b) Apparent Stiffness for Shear Deflection
Shear deflection is implemented by applying the uniform loading simple-span equation for apparent stiffness EIapp in NDS 10.4-1 to all loading and span configurations. Research has shown that this can be very inaccurate for unbalanced loading or spans, and we are developing an improved procedure to be implemented in a future version.
i. Shear Modulus
In this equation effective shear modulus GAeff is calculated using the Shear Analogy Method, given in O86 18.104.22.168 and. CLT Handbook 3.3.1, Equation 25.
GAeff = a2 / b ∑ α i t i / Gi
- the summation i is over all the layers
- a is the distance between the midpoints of the outermost layers,
- b is the one-foot arbitrary design width.
a) α i = ½ for the outermost layers and 1 for the inner layers
- t i is the thickness of the layer
- for layers parallel to loading, Gi = G = Ei/16 (PRG 320, Table A1, Note d)
- for layers transverse to loading, Gi = G /10 (PRG 320, Table A1, Note d)
ii. Double Outermost Layers
Double outermost layers are treated as a single layer in this calculation.
c) Modification Factors
According to NDS Table 10.3-1, only the moisture factor CM and temperature factor Ct are to be applied to the stiffness EIapp to get EIapp’ that is used as the panel stiffness calculations. Sizer assumes dry moisture conditions, so only the Ct factor is applied.
d) Long-term Deflection
The default creep factor for long-term deflection is 2.0 from NDS 3.5.2.
Allowable span lengths for vibration has been implemented using the procedure in CSA O86-14 A.8.5.3.
A data group in the Design Settings has been added called CLT Vibration allowing you to specify whether vibration design using CSA O86 A.8.5.3 is performed, and to allow you to enter a percentage span adjustment increase for manufacturers performance expectations as allowed by A.8.5.3 Note 3.
The allowable vibration span is calculated as
lv <= 0.11 EIeff0.29 / m0.12
where EIeff is in N-m2 and m is the mass per square meter of the panel.
Although the equation is derived for simple spans, the allowable span is compared with the longest span on a multi-span member, as is allowed by Note 1.
i. Allowable Span Increases
The allowable span is then increased by the largest of the performance increase (Note 3, see a), above) or the non-structural element increase (see 2.i) above). Both increases are not applied simultaneously.
The non-structural element increase is not applied to spans greater than 8 m (26.25 feet in length) and will increase spans less than 8 m only as far as 8m.
ii. Allowable vs. Actual Span Length
A Vibration line is added to the Analysis vs Allowable Stress table showing the largest center-to-center span on the member Lmax, the maximum allowable vibration span Lv, and the ratio between them.
Inadequate vibration span lengths are indicated by a failure warning message.
iii. Span Increases
A design note appears if the span has been increased either by the performance increase (see a), above) or the non-structural element increase (see c), above).
7. Building Codes Box
In the Building Codes box, the source of all CLT analysis and design procedures is given in detail referring to references in the CSA O86-14, the NDS, the FPInnovations CLT Handbook, and AWC Technical report 10. Equation numbers from CLT Handbook provisions are given.
8. Concept Mode Load Distribution.
CLT panels in Concept mode are treated as if they were joist areas, with the reactions from the one-unit design strip at each end of the panel used to create line loads on the supporting members.
a) Oblique Panel Loading
If the supports for a CLT panel are sloped, such as is the case for rafters or gable end walls, the panel is loaded obliquely and cannot be designed by Sizer (see 2.l) above).
If the program encounters such a panel, it operates the same way as it does for a non-planar floor or roof area, it is able to transfer the reactions to the supporting members but cannot design the member or the group to which the member belongs.
The Design Summary indicates that the group could not be designed, and the Design by Member results indicate that the panel could not be designed.
a) Member Specification
The member is specified as e.g.
CLT Floor Panel, Southern Pine, E4, 7 Layers 3-7/16” (12” width)
The Panel orientation, either longitudinal axis or transverse axis, is shown in the information below the member.
Volume is shown as cu. m / m or cu. ft./ ft i.e. indicating the volume of the one-unit design width.
Lateral support information is not shown, except for wall panels.
b) Analysis vs Allowable Stress Table
In the Analysis vs. Allowable Stress table,
The Shear line shows value for shear force V and allowable factored rolling shear Vs’.
The Moment line shows values for moment M and allowable moment M’. M’ is the same as (Fb’S)eff.
The Deflection lines appear as they do for beams and columns.
For wall panels:
The Axial, Axial Bearing and Support Bearing lines appear as they do for columns.
The Combined line refers to Equation C15.4-5.
b) Factors Table
In the Factors table of the Additional Data,
The shear line shows Fs. The modification factors shown are applied to Vs.
The moment line shows Fb. The modification factors shown are applied to (FbS)eff.
The deflection line shows EIapp’. The unfactored EIapp is shown along with the treatment factor if one exists.
For wall panels, Fc’, Fc’comb, and Fcp support lines appear as they do for columns.
A column called CLT has been added to show the 0.85 (longitudinal) or 1.0 (transverse) for bending moment resistance (see 4.c) above). The column for notch factor CN has been removed.
c) Calculations Section
The Calculations section of the Additional Data shows the following data
- unfactored rolling shear resistance Vs,
- effective section modulus Seff,
- unfactored moment resistance (FbS)eff,
- effective shear stiffness (GA)eff,
- effective stiffness (EI)eff,
- factored apparent stiffness (EI)app’,
- moduli of elasticity E for longitudinal and transverse layers
- shear moduli G for longitudinal and transverse layers
A note appears saying that (EI)app’ is based on the Ks = 11.5 for uniform loading on a simple span and is approximate for other loading conditions.
d) Design Note
A design note refers to the sources of the design procedures; NDS Chapters 10, C3, and C5, CSA O86-14 Chapter 8, and the FPInnovations CLT Handbook Chapters 3 and 8.
a) Wood Grain
CLT panels are depicted showing alternating uniform layers and layers composed of repeated end-grain. Longitudinally oriented panels have uniform layers at top and bottom; transverse layers show end grain at top and bottom.
b) Double outermost layers
Double outermost layers are shown as two layers at the top and at the bottom which have the same orientation.
c) Wall Panels
For wall panels, the Width b face is shown as the one foot or one-meter design strip. The Depth d face shows the thickness of the panel.
d) Lateral Support
Lateral support is not shown in the drawings, as it does not apply to floor or roof panels or to the Depth d face for wall panels and would be confusing if it appeared on the Width b face, as it is the arbitrary 1-unit wide design strip.
D. Other Changes
Refer also the changes listed under the Version 11.2, below.
1. General Appearance
The program user interface has been changed to have a more up-to-date look and feel. Consequently:
a) Asterisk and Note for Editable Drop-down Boxes
Editable drop-down boxes now have a different appearance than for those you can only select a value, so the asterisks appearing before these boxes and the corresponding notes at the bottom of Beam and Column View have been removed.
b) File Save and File Open Boxes
For Sizer 11, the program reverted to an old-fashioned style of standard Windows File Open and File Save as dialog boxes that had not been in use since Sizer 9.x. The more modern boxes that were used in Sizer 10 have been restored.
Important: Sizer 2019 and Version 11.2 were released simultaneously, so please consider both this list and the changes listed under Sizer 2019 as the record of changes for Sizer 2019. Changes listed under Sizer 2019 are not in Version 11.2.
A. Materials and Database
The following changes have been made to Nordic Lam design properties based on Nordic’s APA PR-L294 Product Report
a) 24F-ES/NPG Column Bending Strength Fb (Change 83)
For 24F-ES/NPG columns, the allowable bending stress in tension Fb has changed to 2400 psi from 1950 psi.
b) 13F-1.7E Joist Properties
The following changes have been made for 13F-1.7E Joists
i. Tension Face Perpendicular Compression Strength Fcp (Change 91)
For 13F-1.7E joists, the allowable compression stress perpendicular to the grain on the tension face Fcp has changed to 450 psi from 600 psi.
ii. Compression Strength Fc (Change 92)
For 13F-1.7E joists, the axial compression capacity Fc has been changed to to 450 psi, the value of compression perpendicular to the grain, from 1150 psi, a value typical of Nordic column materials.
This value is used only for the calculation of bearing capacity of sloped joists from NDS 3.10.3, and this change was made in the interests of conservatism.
iii. Volume Factor Cv (Change 93)
For the volume factor Cv for bending strength Fb of 13F-1.7E joists 1.5” or greater in width, the program uses 12/d1/9 rather than the one from NDS 5.3.6. For custom widths less than 1.5”, the NDS volume factor is still used. The new volume factor is no longer limited to 1.0 as the NDS volume factor is.
c) Cfu Factor (Change 94)
In the flat-use factor Cfu = (12/d)1/9, the program now uses a depth d = 3” for all depths less than 3”, as per Note 8 of Table 2, APA PR-L294,. This factor is used to modify the weak-axis bending strength Fby for all Nordic Lam materials.
2. Unavailable Material Project File Crash (Bug 3357)
Sizer would sometimes show two messages and then crash when it could not find the material database file when opening a saved project file. One reason this occurred was a mismatch between the material name listed in the initialization file and the one in the database file.
Now, if a material is not found in the database, the program picks the first available material and species, shows just one message, and does not crash.
B. Engineering Design
1. Exposed Side Options for Fire Design (Custom Feature 41)
The program now allows you to specify the faces of a member that are exposed to fire. Previously, for you could only select from 0, 3 or 4 sides exposed, and the program would assume 3 sides was 2 side faces and top or bottom.
The Fire Design data group has checkboxes surrounding a section of the member allowing you to specify which of the 4 faces are exposed.
For timber or glulam designed using CSA O86 Annex B, any or all of the sides can be selected.
For CLT floor and roof panels, you can select the bottom, only. For wall panels you can select left or right, but not both.
Fire design is deactivated by deselecting all checkboxes, which is the default condition.
b) Exclusion of Invalid Materials
Previously, when an invalid material like built-up lumber members or SCL was selected, the program would allow input of number of exposed sides then revert to 0 when the design button was pressed. Now it disables the input of exposed sides when one of these materials is selected.
c) Fire Design
The program reduces the design section by calculating a char depth for each exposed face.
The choice of left or right beam surfaces does not affect design, or column surfaces perpendicular to applied loading.
For column surfaces parallel to the applied force and CLT wall panels, the choice of left or right surface can have design consequences due to axial load eccentricity.
Input fire protection is assumed to apply to each exposed face.
The choice of exposed faces is shown in the materials specification of the Design Check output as follows, as the case may be:
Exposed to fire on [ one [b,d]-face, opposing [b,d]-faces, both [b,d]-faces and one [b,d]-face, all four faces ]
2. Fire Resistance Modification Factors (Bug 3417)
The program was applying several modification factors for non-fire design to fire design, even though they should not be applicable to fire design according to NDS Table 16.2.2. The factors for repetitive member Cr, wet service CM, incising Ci and temperature Ct were showing a dash in the Factors table in Design Check output, but the factors were being calculated applied to fire design bending and shear criteria. They no longer are.
3. Wet Service Factor CM for Support Columns (Bug 3321)
For column supporting members, the wet service factor CM for bearing design for sawn lumber used by Sizer was 0.67 for Fc perp from NDS Table 4D, when it should have been 0.91 for Fc parallel. This has been corrected.
4. Points of Interest in Column Mode (Bug 3271)
Starting with version 11.1, a point of interest was added to a wall stud or column in Column Mode, the program crashed when member design was invoked. It did not happen for beams. This has been corrected.
4. Design Failure Tolerance (Change 81)
For design sections having analysis values, e.g. Mf , that are greater than design resistance values e.g. Mr, by an amount that is less than ½ of 1% of the value, the Analysis vs. Design table in the Design Check showed a 1.00 design ratio (when in decimal format) and showed a passing section note instead of failure warning.
Now, the program considers a design to be failed if the ratio is greater than 1.0005, and outputs the ratio with an extra digit of precision, e.g. 1.003. For example, a member with Mf = 20295 lb-ft and Mr with 20205 would show a ratio of 1.00 and pass, but now it shows 1.004 and fails.
When percentage is chosen as the design ratio output in the Preference settings, a greater tolerance in determining design failure is possible. In this case, the program currently considers a design to be failed if the percentage is greater than 100.05% (1.0005). Now the program considers design to be failed with a ratio greater than 1.00005, and outputs the percentage with a digit of precision, e.g. 100.03%. For example, a member with Mf = 20215 lb-ft and Mr = 20205 will show a ratio of 1.00 and pass when decimal is chosen, but when percentage is chosen, it shows 100.04% and fails.
5. Default Lateral Support at Interior Supports (Change 2)
When a new span is added to create a multi-span beam, the Laterally supported at support checkbox for interior supports is now unchecked by default. Previously it was checked, but in most common situations lateral supports are not provided to interior supports.
The fire design procedure for beams and columns from IBC 2012 722.6.3 has been removed from Sizer, as it is no longer in the IBC as of 2015. The option in beam and column views to select from this procedure and NBC Chapter 16 has been removed, and the NDS procedure is used exclusively.
7. Shear Ratio in Design Summary Output (Change 23)
In Beam mode, Design Summary for unknown design, for all sections except the first one listed, the program was showing a shear design ratio for a load combination other than the critical one used to select the section.
This was a display issue only and did not affect the determination of the section to be shown. If that section was then selected for a design check, the design ratio in the Design Check output was correct.
8. Repetitive Member Factor Cr for Glulam Beams (Change 104)
For glulam beams, in Beam mode, the Repetitive member check box is now disabled, as per to NDS Table 5.3.1 and 16.2.2 for fire design. Previously if you checked the box, it would automatically uncheck if a design was run. The factor is now output as a dash rather than a 1.0 in the Factors table of the Design Check output.
C. Loads and Analysis
1. Precise Load Location Start Point in Input (Change 11)
In Load Input view, Location from left has been modified to be
Location from edge of left support,
Location from left end or
Location from left bearing point
for clear span, full span, and design span respectively. These designate where the load is measured from; support point, end of joist/beam or inner edge of support.
2. Unfactored Axial Reactions in Column Output (Custom Change 16)
The program now includes unfactored axial reactions for each load type in the Reactions table of Column Mode, whereas previously only lateral reactions were shown. The table has been renamed Reactions from Lateral reactions for this reason.
These reactions are helpful when using them as loads to be applied to a supporting member for combination with other loads on that member.
3. Column Reaction in Analysis Diagram
The following problems affected only the display of column reactions shown in the Analysis Diagrams when self-weight was automatically included in bearing design, and have been Corrected The self-weight was correctly handled in the Design Check output.
a) Load Combination Factor for Self-weight (Bugs 3444)
The factored bearing reaction was calculated using a self-weight component that did not include the dead load combination factor.
b) Self-weight Only (Bugs 3445)
Previously When self-weight is the only axial load for a given load combination, no bearing reaction was shown.
4. Moving Concentrated Live Loads Nomenclature (Bug 3268)
The word Moving has been removed from Add moving concentrated live load in load input view and anywhere else it appears in the program. The IBC does not refer to these loads as "moving", only “concentrated”, and the term "moving" loads ordinarily refers to vehicular loads on bridges, trestles etc., not concentrated occupancy loads examined at different locations on a member.
5. Area Load Input Rounding in Output (Change 42)
Due to numerical rounding, sometimes the area load value shown in the Design Check and Design Summary output reports was slightly different than that input, e.g. 199 psf instead of 200 psf. This has been corrected.
D. Program Operation
1. Stud Spacing Input when Typed In (Bug 3313)
When wall stud spacing is typed in rather than entered, or the delete or backspace key is used, the numbers appearing are not those typed in an erratic and unpredictable fashion. This has been corrected.
2. Beam View Bearing Length
The following problems affecting the operation beam view bearing length input in conjunction with the minimum bearing length design setting have been corrected:
a) Default Minimum Bearing Length after Change in Unit System (Bug 3343)
The program sometimes opened with the minimum bearing length for both interior and end supports set to an unreasonably high value.
This happened if you had switched unit systems then accessed the Default setting pages when Save as Default was set, which it is by default.
It could also happen when a member was imported from Concept mode with different units than the beam file.
b) Bearing Length Update on Change of Member Type (Change 1, 1b)
For floor or roof panels, when the default minimum bearing length is changed in the Default settings to a value greater than the bearing length in Beam view, the program, updated the minimum bearing length in beam view to 1.5” and 3” for exterior and interior supports, respectively, The warning message saying the input value had changed also displayed the incorrect value. The program now updates the bearing length input and the warning message as per default settings input.
c) Bearing Length Update on Change of Member Type (Change 1a)
Upon changing member type in beam mode, the program modified the bearing length as follows:
If using millimetres, the internal bearing length value would be divided by 1000 as if it were converting to metres.
If using inches, the bearing length would be divided by 12 as if converting to feet.
This only happened when changing the member type to and from beam, joist and panel types not when changing type between floor and roof panels or joists.
Sizer no longer modifies bearing length in this way when the member type is changed.
3. Update of Deflection Limits (Bug 3126)
In Beam Input view, if live or total deflection limits were changed and then certain other inputs were changed, the deflection limits are reset to their previous values. This happened all the time when the Treatment is changed and sometimes for other inputs like Species.
4. Lateral Stability Built-up Member Width Default Setting (Bug 3263)
The Built-up member width b for lateral stability calculation Design setting was not being saved as a default for new files when you specified to do so, so that the original default value of Single ply width was always applied to new projects unless changed after the file was created. This has been corrected.
5. Addition of b and d Symbols to Width and Depth Input (Change 28)
In Beam and Column views, the symbols b and d have been added to the Width and Depth inputs, so they are now Width (b) and Depth (d).
6. Lateral Support Input
The following changes have been made to the Lateral support spacing input in Beam view.
a) Lateral Support Image and Text in Beam View Input (Changes 2a and 2b)
The program now shows text below the image for lateral support indicating whether the interior supports are restrained, as the input for this is under Supports for Bearing and Notch Design and not immediately evident in this section of Beam view.
b) Lateral Support Image in Beam View Input (Change 2b)
The small image in the Beam view input showing lateral support has been changed. It now shows the lateral supports as pieces of strapping rather than red lines.
7. Display of Wet Service Conditions for SCL Materials (Bug 3322)
If Wet service was selected In Beam or Column views and then an SCL material was selected, the input became disabled but still showed Wet, and wet service appeared in the material specification of the in the Design Summary and Design Check; however wet service conditions are not allowed for SCL materials. This was a display issue only; the wet service factor was not applied to any calculation. It has been corrected.
8. Link to Video Tutorials in Help Menu (Change 12)
The following link has been added to the Help menu so that a user can navigate to a video tutorial from within the program. (http://cwc.ca/woodworks-software/support-and-training/canadian-tutorials/)
9. Persistence of First Custom Design Note in Settings (Bug 3279)
Starting with version 11.1 when the first of the notes in the Design Notes settings page was checked, the checked state was not registered and did not persist when the page is re-opened. As a result, the note did not appear in the Design Check summary, nor could you save it as a default note for new files. This has been corrected.
10. Deflection Limit Title in Default Values (Change 37)
In the Default Settings the column titles for Default deflection limits have been changed, e.g. Live is now Live=L/.
11. Joist Spacing Unit Truncated (Change 28a)
Metric units shown beside the Joist spacing input in Beam view were truncated, i.e. mr appeared instead of mm. This has been corrected.
12. Logo Instructions in Company Settings (Bug 3374)
The instructions regarding entering a logo in the Company settings input now say …enhanced Design Check output instead of …enhanced text output, as “text output” could refer to other output reports.
13. Capitalization of Input Items
The following changes were made to make capitalization of user interface items consistent with all other input.
a) Unknown Bearing Length Input (Change 51)
The Beam view input choices under For unknown bearing length… now capitalize only the first word in each option.
b) Show Loads View in Pop-up Window Preference Setting (Change 50)
In Settings, under Preferences the checkbox named Show Loads view in a pop-up window now reads Show Loads View in a pop-up window. The change is from the lower-case v to upper case V in View.
1. Missing Concentrated Live Loads in Load Drawing (Bug 3403)
Starting with version 11.1, concentrated loads no longer appeared in the load diagram. In drawing the other loads, they were adjusted to accommodate the greater magnitude of the concentrated load, however.
This has been corrected.
2. Critical Shear Diagram for 90-degree Oblique Angle (Bug 3410)
For beams loaded at an oblique angle of 90 degrees, in the Analysis Diagram, for Critical Results, the shear diagram was blank and did not show a shear graph. The 90-degree graphs appear for other load combinations, the critical results appear for all other angles. The critical results now appear for 90 degrees.
3. Bottom Lateral Supports for Multi-Span Beams. (Change 62)
The first bottom lateral support symbol was not being drawn for interior spans of multi-span members. This symbol now appears.
4. Lateral Support at Supports (Change 2c)
In the Beam view drawing, when there is no lateral support other than at end supports, the program did not show the lateral support symbols at supports, even though lateral support was shown at the support when there was also intermediate support. This has been corrected.
5. Load Envelope for Joist and Wall Area Loads (Bug 3320)
For joists and wall studs, the magnitudes of area loads shown in the Load Envelope drawing of the Analysis diagrams were incorrectly multiplied by a factor equal to the joist spacing in the unit system chosen, e.g. 400 for metric or 16 for imperial. This has been corrected.
6. Analysis Diagram Improvements (Change 9)
Decimal points were lined up where multiple design values were shown.
Spaces were introduced before reactions +Rmax and -Rmax to match the formatting of other labels
Load combination numbers are now shown for critical reactions.
7. Unit Label in Column Drawing (Change 10)
In the drawing of negatively side-loaded columns, the unit label (kN/m or plf) for applied load was overwritten over the left end of the scale line near 0. Sizer now clearly prints it to the right of the negative scale line.
8. Lateral Supports for Long Beams in Drawing (Change 63)
1. Print to Fit on One Page Font Size (Bug 3459)
If Print to fit on one page in the Format settings is checked the program sometimes print with a font size less than what can fit on a page, e.g. it used a font size 4 although a font size of 5 fits when the checkbox is not selected, and it is only with a font size of 6 that the design report was printed in two pages.
This has been corrected and the program now prints with the optimal font size when printing just one page.
2. Fire Design Output (Change 30 and 76)
The following changes have been made to the output of fire design information
a) Fire Design Section (Change 30, 76 and 103)
The Fire sub-section under Calculations in the Design Check output report has been reorganized and changed as follows:
- The residual section has been reformatted as follows, e.g.: Residual section = 0.70x5.70 in is now Residual section = 0.70” x 5.70”
- Fire Protection (gypsum) is changed to Protection
- Fire design Adjustment factor is changed to Adjustment factor
- Required resistance duration has been moved to this section. Previously it was in the materials specification section of the report.
- Char rate is now Char depth
b) Fire Information in the Materials Specification (Change 103d)
The required fire duration input in Beam view has been moved to the Calculations section from the specification of member materials, as it is not a property of the beam itself. To indicate that this line is about fire design, the word fire has now been incorporated into the number exposed sides and removed from Fire protection.
c) Number of Exposed Sides (Change 87)
The program was displaying nonsensical values in the material specification of the Design Check output for the number of fire-exposed sides when the IBC 722.63 fire design method was selected. This method has been removed from the program.
3. Member Description in Design Check Output (Changes 77, 78 and 103)
a) Formatting and Wording
The member description in the Design Check has been changed as follows
- Beam and stringer is now Beam or stringer
- Post and timber is now Post or timber
- Service: wet is changed to Wet service
- The line Chemicals: [fire-retardant, preservative] is now after Wet service
- For glulam, maximum lamination width changed to max lam width and moved from its own line to the end of the line starting with the beam length.
- The word volume has been capitalized for consistency
- Spaces added before Pitch, before mm in max lam width and before the equal sign in top= and bottom=
b) Lateral Support Spacing
The lateral support spacing output higher than that input by about 5-10%, for both metric and imperial formatting. This has been corrected.
For metric output, the spacing is now shown in whole millimeters rather than 2-digit accuracy.
4. Additional Design Data for Column Supporting Member Design (Change 13a)
For bearing design of column supporting members, in the Design Check under Load Combinations, the reaction R, bearing capacity Cap bearing length Lb and bearing factor Kb have been moved to the Calculations section. R is renamed Reaction and Cap Capacity.
5. Bearing Table Note for Cantilevered Members (Change 66)
For cantilevered members in beam mode, Sizer was often mistakenly showing a note regarding maximum reactions being from a critical load combination other then the one used for bearing design, and under Critical load combinations in the Additional Data, it was showing a 0 for the load combination number for bearing at some supports, rather than the critical LC number.
The correct load combinations were used for design, so this was a display issue only and has been corrected.
6. Irrelevant Cfu and CV Values in Factors Table (Change 95)
In the Factors table of the additional data, the program now outputs a dash (-) rather than 1.00 for the flat use factor Cfu for strong axis bending Fb and for the volume factor CV for weak axis bending Fby as these factors are not relevant to the design in these directions. Numeric values are output for Cfu for Fby and CV for Fb.
7. Char Rate Units in Output (Change 31)
The char rate for fire design in the Calculations section of the Design Check was output in Imperial units, i.e. in/hr even if Metric units were selected. Now mm/hr is output for metric units.
8. Explanatory Deflection Line in Output (Change 27)
A line regarding deflection in Additional Data has been re-worded. “Live” deflection = Deflection from all non-dead loads (live, wind, snow) now appears as “Live” deflection is due to all non-dead loads (live, wind, snow).
9. Name of Bearing and Reaction Table for I-joists (Change 36)
For I-joists, the table that for other materials was called Maximum Reactions, Bearing Resistances, and Bearing Lengths was called just Maximum Reactions, because previously it contained only reactions. Now, as it also has support bearing design, it is called Maximum Reactions and Support Bearing.
10. Custom Design Notes in Design Summary and ASCII Design Check (Bug 3280)
Custom design notes entered in the Design Notes settings only appeared in the Enhanced (graphical) Design Check, and not in the Design Summary for unknown section nor in the ASCII version of the Design Check. This has been corrected.
11. Small Formatting Changes
a) Blank Space after F/E (Change 32)
A blank space was introduced after F/E(psi) or F/E(MPa) in the Factors Table under Additional Data in the Design Check.
b) Blank Spaces in Critical Load Combinations (Change 29)
Extra blank spaces after V max, V design and M appearing under Critical Load Combinations in the Design Check output have been removed.
c) Column Support Bearing (Change 100)
The Support Bearing line of the Analysis vs. Allowable Stress and Deflection table now says Support Bearin as the g interfered with the column separator line.
Items marked with an asterisk (*) are those which were added to the version history record after the release of that version.
A. Sloped Beam Loads Drawing (Feature 146) *
The program previously did not show the slope of a sloped beam while in Loads view, and drew the loads as if they were applied to a horizontal beam. Now, the drawing of loads faithfully reflects the direction and distribution of each load type on sloped members.
To preserve space to depict the loads, in the screen drawing, the angle that the beam is sloped is limited to 5 degrees, that is, any beam that is sloped more than 5 degrees shall be limited to 5 degrees.
In the printed output, the angle is limited to 30 degrees.
The depiction of notches is also adjusted for the 5- and 30-degree limitations.
2. Beam Depth
For both sloped and non-sloped beams, if the beam depth exceeds 1/12 of the beam depth, the program limits the depiction of the beam to 1/12 of the depth. This ensures sufficient room is left for drawing of loads.
3. Load Depiction
There are three categories of loads based on the direction of load relative to the beam, and the assumed distribution of force – projected or along the slope.
a) Dead-type Loads
The following load types are applied along the sloped member edge with arrows oriented vertically: Dead, Dead soil, Earthquake.
b) Live-type Loads
The following load types are applied along a horizontal projection of the member, with arrows oriented vertically: Live, Sustained Live, Snow
c) Wind Loads
Wind loads are applied along the sloped member with arrows oriented normal to the member.
The scales at the side are shown vertically regardless of the orientation of the member.
5. Negative Loads
To conserve space, and unlike non-sloped members which have negative loads beneath the beam, negative loads are drawn above the beam in the same place as positive loads, but with the arrows reversed.
6. Negative Slope
Loads are drawn for negative slopes, but these do not function as well as for the positive case and loads are sometimes slightly offset or intersect with the member. To rectify these problems, simply show the same positive slope as if you were viewing the beam from the other side.
7. Combining of Load Type
This feature has also been implemented for the option of combining all loads of each type into a single graph for that type.
B. Bug Fixes and Small Improvements
1. Wall Stud Wind Load Repetitive Member Factor in SDPWS 2015 (Bug 3216)
The repetitive member factors for wind loads on wall studs from the 2015 edition of the Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SDPWS) Table 22.214.171.124 apply to studs that are spaced up to 24” on center, rather than 16” as in previous editions, but Version 11 of Sizer continued to restrict their application to 16” spacing.
Consequently, the bending strength Fb values for studs spaced at 24” were factored by 1.15 when they could have been factored by a value ranging from 1.20 to 1.50 depending on stud width.
The program now activates the checkbox setting in Column view allowing you to specify this increase when the joist spacing is 24” or less.
2. Missing Shear Results for 90-Degree Rotation (Bug 3227)
Starting with version 11, beams rotated 90 degrees using the Oblique angle input were no longer designed for shear. Shear results were not shown in the Analysis vs Design table, nor was the critical shear point in the shear analysis diagram, and a shear was not considered when evaluating a section for design. This has been corrected, and shear results now appear for members rotated 90 degrees.
3. Dimension Overlap for Short Cantilevers (Bug 3247)
For short cantilever spans, the design span dimension values shown below the beam overlapped, rendering them unreadable. Now, for beams with end spans less than 1/10 the length of the beam, the rightmost dimension is offset downwards to be visible, and for left end spans, the "0" is not shown.
4. Beam Length Alignment in Design Check Drawing (Bug 3223)
In the beam drawing in the Design Check report, the number representing the length of the beam appeared below its dimension line instead of aligned with it and overlapped with the drawing of the beam. This did not occur in the beam view drawing and has been corrected.
5. Persistence of Multi-ply vs Single Ply Lateral Stability Setting (Bug 3284*)
The Design Setting for using multi-ply vs. single-ply lateral stability for built-up beams could not be saved as a default for new files. This has been corrected.
6. Clear spans in Design Check Output (Change 204)
The program now shows the length of each clear span in the Design Check output report next to the total beam length, as this information does not appear in the diagram in this report
7. Span Precision in Beam Drawing (Change 205)
The number of decimal places shown on the beam drawing has been increased from one to two decimal places for inches and from two to three decimal places for feet, so that 1/4' appears as 0.25" rather than 0.3". For feet output, a value like 3.5" will appear as .292 rather than .29. This change has been applied to the drawings in both Beam view screen and in the Design Check output.
8. Design Ratio Output Alignment (Change 200)
The alignment of the Design Ratio output in the Design Check report for percentages greater than 100% has been improved.
9. Fire-exposed Faces in Design Check Report (Change 206) *
Under the materials specification in the Design Check Output, the program now indicates which faces are exposed to fire, rather than just indicating 3 or 4 faces are exposed.
For beams, it now shows Exposed top or bottom and sides instead of 3 sides, and Exposed all sides instead of 4 sides.
For columns, it shows Exposed on two d-faces and one b-face instead of 3 sides, and Exposed all faces instead of 4 sides,
Note that this is just a temporary measure, and we intend to implement a new feature allowing you to control what surfaces are exposed to fire, and the descriptions will change again at that time.
A. Design Codes and Standards
Version 11 of Sizer updates several design codes and standards used in the program. The details of the associated changes to the program appear elsewhere in this list of changes; this section just identifies the design standards changed.
The implementation in Sizer of the IBC has been updated from the 2012 edition to 2015, the NDS from 2005 to 2012.
a) ICC International Building Code (IBC 2015)
Version 11 of Sizer implements the 2015 IBC, whereas Version 10 implemented the 2012 version.
b) ANSI/AWC National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS 2015)
Version 11 of Sizer conforms to the NDS 2015, whereas version 10 conformed to NDS 2012.
c) ANSI/AWC Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SDPWS 2015)
The SDPWS had been updated from the 2008 version to the 2015 version for Design Office 11, however, the one provision in Sizer from the SDPWS has not changed.
The references to design standards have been updated in the following places:
a) Welcome, About Sizer, and Building Codes Dialog
The new design standards implemented are listed in the Welcome dialog box that appears on program start-up, and can be invoked later via the Help menu, and in the About Shearwalls box from the Help menu. More detailed information is given in the Building Codes dialog box invoked from the Welcome box.
b) On-line Help
The On-line Help documentation has been updated to refer to the current design code editions.
Where necessary, references to design code clause numbers in program messages, notes, results output, etc., have been updated, as follows.
There were no references within the Sizer program to those portions of the NDS that were renumbered.
b) On-line Help
The few design code clause references that may have changed have not yet been updated as within the On-line Help as of the date of the software release. The Help is now accessed over the Web, and will have the updated references, if any, by Feb 2017.
The WoodWorks package no longer installs a .pdf file for the On-line NDS on your computer. The Help menu links and Start menu icons now direct you to websites where viewable versions of the NDS and NDS Supplement are accessed.
Note that the NDS Commentary is no longer included.
In the Building Codes dialog box that is accessed from the Welcome box:
The section detailing substantive changes to the 2012 NDS and 2010 ASCE 7 have been removed.
The note about implementing fire design for Version 10 has been removed.
A small grammar error was corrected.
B. Materials and Database
1. Updated Glulam Section Sizes (Feature 195)
Several I-joist compatible glulam sections have been added to the glulam balanced and glulam unbalanced database files to make the database correspond to the current NDS Supplement. These sizes are:
Western Species - 3.5 x 9.25, 3.5 x 20, 3.5x 22, 5.5 x 9.25, 5.5 x 20, 5.5 x 22
Southern Pine - 3.5 x 9.25, 3.5x 18, 3.5x 20, 3.5 x 24, 5.5 x 9.25, 5.5 x 18, 5.5x 20, 5.5 x 24.
2. MSR and MEL Materials (Design Office Feature 18)
a) NDS Supplement Update
Extensive changes were made to the MSR and MEL database files to implement changes in the 2015 Supplement Table 4C as compared to the 2012 edition. Note that the changes originally appeared in a 2013 addendum, but are new to the WoodWorks program.
b) Grading Agency
In addition, the program now restricts the materials to those for which there as a least one match between the grading rules agencies listed for the grades in Table 4C and those listed for the species in Table 4C Footnotes. Previously it included all combinations of species and grade, most of which don’t in fact exist.
In a few places, this necessitated the creation of new species designations like Hem-Fir (WCLIB) and S-P-F (S) (0.46) to distinguish between species that have different properties for the same E value when graded by different agencies.
Note that for MEL, this change restricts the database to Southern Pine and those species graded by the Canadian NLGA, which are the only MEL materials in existence.
3. Design Section Sizes for Sawn Timbers (Design Office Feature 17)
For sawn timbers, the NDS 2015 specifies that wet section sizes are to be used for design, whereas the NDS 2015 listed dry sizes. For 5”- and 6”-nominal timbers there is no change in size, for 8” to 14” the sizes have increased ¼”, e.g. 7-1/4” to 7-1/2”, and for 16” to 24” they have increased ½”, e.g. 15 to 15-1/2”
These changes originally appeared in a 2013 addendum to the NDS Supplement. Note that the wet sizes were listed in editions of the NDS prior to 2012, so WoodWorks is reverting the sizes to those that were in the program before version 10.
These changes have been made to the major species, other species, and hardwood database files used in Sizer for beams and columns.
4. Glulam and Timber Joists (Feature 217)
The glulam and timber database files are now included for joist design to allow you to more easily design large timbers that are repetitively spaced and subject to uniform area loads.
No attempt was made to cull the section sizes to realistic ones for floor and roof joists, so these database files are recommended to be used primarily when a section size is known rather than design for unknown section size.
C. Engineering Design
1. Notch Design
Notch design has been expanded and improved significantly, with the addition of interior notches, notches on sloped members, and other smaller improvements.
a) Interior Notches (Feature 14)
The program now allows for notches to be located at interior supports in multi-span and cantilevered members. This allows for common situations such as a birds-mouth notch in a roof rafter, especially in conjunction with improvements made in the treatment of notches for sloped members (see immediately below). .
Interior notches can be notched at the lower surface only; top notches are not allowed.
According to NDS 126.96.36.199, the stiffness of a bending member is practically unaffected by notches with depth less than or equal to 1/6 beam depth and length less than or equal to 1/3 beam depth. Accordingly, these limits have been applied to interior notches.
(a) Data Group
The input fields that were previously in their own data group have been moved to the Supports for bearing design data group, which has been renamed Supports for bearing and notch design.
(b) Location on Beam
The control for Left end, Right end, or Both has been eliminated. Instead, the mechanism for choosing supports for bearing design is now also used to choose the supports for notch input. That is, the control Applies to is used to specify the support(s) that the notch inputs apply to.
(c) Unsupported Length e
The program applies the unsupported length e to both sides of an interior notch, except for sloped beams, for which e is applied entirely at the upper side of the support, as is the case with a birdsmouth notch.
(d) Top and Bottom Notches
The program rejects input of interior top notches and resets the input fields without notifying you. It is possible to apply top notches to both ends by selecting “All” supports; the program simply omits the interior notches.
iii. Shear Design
Shear design is performed using 188.8.131.52. These procedures had already been implemented for end notches.
iv. Moment Design
For interior notches, the program uses the net area to calculate the section modulus S in the calculation for moment stress using 3.3.2, as required by 184.108.40.206.
Note that this had not previously been done for end notches, because moments at the end are zero. The rare case of applied moment at a notched member end has now also been handled (see Bug 2845, below).
v. Notch Size Limitations
If the input notch exceeds the notch size limitations, upon design the program:
- Issues a warning on the screen
- Designs with shear resistance given in the Design Check results as “N/A”
- Shows a failure warning in the Design Check due to notch restrictions
The notch output in the Materials Specification of the Design Check report is now formatted in a similar manner to supports for bearing design, that is, the supports are numbered sequentially from the left and of the beam and the information for the notch given after the support number if there is a notch for that support.
b) Notches on Sloped Members (Bug 2789)
The program now considers the slope angle of the beam when drawing notches in sloped members.
The program did not check whether the input of the unsupported length e was compatible with the input notch length dn for sloped members, and sloped member notches were not accurately drawn on the member.
(a) Notch Depth
The input notch depth for sloped notches is the dn value as defined by NDS 220.127.116.11, that is the distance perpendicular to the member grain.
Note that this distance must be calculated from the vertical notch depth, which is the depth likely to be specified to installers because they lay out the notch using a square with the marks on the edge of the wood corresponding to the ratio of rise/run of the sloped member.
(b) Unsupported Length e
This is the horizontal distance from the edge of the support at the upwardly sloping end of the beam to where it interests with the lower edge of the beam. If an unsupported length is entered that is not possible given the input notch depth, the depth is changed to accommodate it, and vice-versa.
As with unnotched members, the dn and e you input in Beam View is used to compute shear reduction in 18.104.22.168.
iv. Drawing (Bug 2788)
The program now draws notches on sloped so that a member supporting a sloped member fits into a notch entered for that support. Note that for reasons of economy of space on the screen and printed output, the beam angle in the drawing is not always the actual beam angle, so that notches on the drawing often do not penetrate the member as they do the actual beam.
c) Other Notch Design
i. Notches in Tension or Compression for Zero Reaction (Bug 2090)
When the bearing reaction at a notched support is zero the notch is sometimes considered in tension when it should be in compression and vice versa. Whether the notch is in tension or compression determines whether 22.214.171.124 (a) or (e) is used for notch design.
Note that it is quite rare for the mechanics of the beam to be such that the reaction of the support is precisely zero, so this bug is very unlikely to have occurred in a practical design.
ii. Missing Notch Error Message (Bug 2798)
When a notch was entered that exceeded the 1/3 span length limit, the program would silently change the notch to 1/3 span length in the design, but not update the notch input field or inform the user. Now it changes the input to 1/3 span length and issues a warning message.
iii. Notched Beams Bending Capacity (Bug 3173)
The bending check for notched beams was using the section modulus Sx reduced for net area of an end notch when calculating the moment capacity in the interior of the span, when it should only have been used at the notched ends of the span. This occurred only if a notch was present of the left-hand side of the span, and has been corrected
iv. Moment Design for End Notches with Applied Moments (Bug 2845)
The program now uses the net section for moment design when an applied moment is entered right at the end of the member that is notched at the end. Note that this condition is quite rare in practice.
v. Fractional Imperial Input of Notch Parameters (Bug 2942)
Notch length and notch depth input fields did allow imperial fractional input, because they updated, imposed limits, and changed related fields every time a character is entered, for example when trying to enter a 13/16 notch it disallowed it when “13” was typed. This has been corrected and fractional input is now supported.
If you entered a top-edge notch that is shorter than the distance from the outer edge of the support to the support point based on required bearing, the program could misidentify a compression notch as tension and vice-versa, as it does not have the loads analysis information outside the design span. This problem is restricted to the rare case that a notch on the upper face is loaded in tension, unless zero is entered as the unsupported length for compression notches.
A simple workaround to the most common instance of this problem is to simply not enter a short notch on the compression face, as there are no design implications of such a notch. The problem has been corrected nonetheless.
2. Lateral Stability and CL Factor
The following changes pertain to the Beam Stability Factor CL in NDS 3.3.3 and the treatment of lateral beam support.
a) Interior Supports not Laterally Supported (Feature 212, Bug 2700)
Even though the NDS 126.96.36.199 says that beams must be laterally supported at points of bearing, several users have indicated that they would like to design beams that are either not laterally braced at interior points of bearing or that are insufficiently laterally supported in their engineering judgement, and therefore consider the full beam length as the unsupported length Lu for the calculation of the CL factor.
Noting that mechanics of the buckling equations used to derive the CL factor require only that the beam be fixed against rotation at two points, and that the American Wood Council Technical Report 14 includes a multi-span beam example with unsupported length as the entire length of the beam, Sizer has been modified to allow the choice of whether a beam is or is not laterally supported at interior supports.
ii. User Interface
A checkbox Laterally supported at support has been be added to the Supports for bearing and notch design box. It behaves similarly to the Bearing at support end checkbox in terms of being checked, unchecked, disabled and enabled when multiple supports are selected at once in the Applies to box.
The program ensures that end supports and cantilever supports are always checked, to maintain two points at the end of each beam that are fixed against rotation.
The existing output under the materials specification in the Design Check summary which says “at supports”, has been modified to say “at all supports”, “at end supports”, or e.g. “at supports 1,2, 4”
If the checkbox is not checked, the program does not consider the interior support when determining the unsupported length Lu. If At supports is chosen as the lateral support option, all interior supports are unchecked, the program uses the full beam length as the unsupported length. If a lateral support spacing greater than a span length adjacent to such as support, the lateral support length is used instead of the span length.
If the option Use zero moment points is selected as well is unchecking lateral support as a support, the distance between zero moment points to the left and right of the support is used if it is greater than any span length.
In the beam drawing, for interior bearing supports that are not laterally supported, there is no longer a lateral support symbol at the bearing support.
b) Built-up Member Width for CL Factor (Feature 209)
The program now offers a choice of whether using the full member width or the width of a single ply for the lateral stability calculations for built-up beams. .
Research has recently shown that nailed and bolted beams have at most 30% composite action effect in terms of resisting torsional buckling, and for this reason it is extremely non-conservative to use the full member width as b in the expression for the slenderness ratio RB which is used to calculate the stability factor CL in NDS 188.8.131.52.
In the Design Settings, a data group called Lateral Stability factor CL has been added, a set of selection buttons has been added to allow you to choose whether the full member width or single ply width is used for the CL factor.
The default value for this setting is single ply for new project files and full member width for files from previous versions which did not have the setting. In that case, the program issues a warning when the file is loaded.
When single ply is chosen, the value b used in the slenderness ratio RB in 184.108.40.206 is the width of a single ply, that is, assuming no composite action effect. This affects both the limit of 50 for the slenderness ratio itself, and the use of value RB in calculating the lateral stability factor CL via FbE.
For built-up beams, the program appends the choice of single ply or full beam width to the existing line in the CALCULATIONS section of the Additional Data giving the parameters for the lateral stability calculations (Feature 172, below).
c) Lateral Stability Parameters in Output (Feature 172)
In the CALCULATIONS section of the Additional Data in the Design Check output, the program now shows the unsupported length Lu, the effective length Le, and the slenderness ratio RB for the calculations of lateral stability factor CL in NDS 3.3.3, and if applicable, the built-up member width option (Feature 209, above) and/or the zero moment point option (Bug 2695 from version 10.2, below).
d) Column Lateral Stability Details in Additional Data (Change 185)
In the CALCULATIONS section of the Additional Data output, the program was showing identical lateral stability detail lines for positive and negative moment for columns if such moments existed. As we assume both edges of a column are supported the same way, this was unnecessary, and one of the lines has been removed. In the case that there is only a positive moment, the “(+)” symbol has been removed.
e) Drawing of Lateral Supports
The following problems regarding the drawing of lateral support symbols have been corrected:
i. Lateral Support for Sloped Multi-span Beams (Bug 2928)
Sloped multi-span beams with a specified lateral support spacing is drawing the lateral supports with a large gap between the lateral supports and the beam.
ii. Start of Interior Spans (Bug 2697)
The starting point for interior spans is now be the middle of the support, not the right edge.
iii. Final Lateral Support Symbol (Bug 2697)
A lateral support symbol is now placed at the end of the beam.
3. Wood Volume Output (Feature 171)
In order to facilitate approximate cost comparisons of different sizing options, the program now outputs the wood volume of the member.
a) Design Summary
A column has been added to the design summary output of suggested sections giving the wood volume of the member in cu. ft or m3. To make space this column, we have removed columns that do not apply to the type of member, such as the axial tension column for beams. Because bearing lengths are not necessarily known when these sections are examined, the length used by the program is the one input in beam view and could therefore be the length of the design span, clear span, or full span. Only if full span will be chosen will the result be the precise volume of wood in the member, however, in the other cases, the results are adequate to serve as a comparison of the different sections.
b) Design Check
The volume of wood in cu. ft or m3 is given after the total beam length in the materials specification of the Design Check output. In this case, the full length of the beam is used to compute the volume regardless of the chosen span type.
4. Bearing and Supports
The following problems with bearing and supporting members have been corrected.
a) Rounding of Bearing Length Input (Bug 2944)
If you typed in a length like 1.113 in the bearing length input, the program rounded to the nearest 1/8th of an inch when exiting the view then entering it again, or when it was updated for other reasons. This created problems in conjunction with the notch length field, which updates based on the bearing length, but doesn’t' round the same way. The bearing length input field now operates like other inputs.
b) Multi-ply Member Bearing Width in Beam Drawing (Bug 2958)
The program was showing the width of a single ply as the bearing width for multi-ply members. Now in this case it does not show a bearing width, as it is assumed to be the main member width if not showing.
c) Weak Axis Bearing Design for SCL Materials (Bug 2980)
For SCL materials oriented as planks, the program did not use the weak axis Fcpy value for design, nor output it in the Modification Factors table of the Additional data. Because SCL has not been tested for oblique angles, for any angle between 0 and 90 the weak axis value now applies.
Furthermore, supporting members designated as sill plates now use weak axis Fcpy
d) Drawing of Clear Span with Cantilevered Beams (Bug 2960)
The dimension line for clear span for cantilevered beams wasn’t showing the gap at the support.
e) Load Combinations for Bearing Design (Change 167)
The load combinations for bearing design are now spelled out in full in the Additional Data section, similar to other load combinations for other design criteria.
f) Column Bearing Length Output for Non-wood Support (Change 162)
When the selection for support is Non-wood the program n longer shows the Bearing length = column width phrase in the materials specification of the design check report, because in that case there is no bearing design.
g) Support vs. Supports in Bearing Table (Change 168)
In Reactions and Bearing table, under Resistance, Supports has been changed to Support for consistency with other output.
h) Column Support Wet Service Factor (Bug 3058)
When the member supported is a column, the program showed the incorrect wet service factor CM for the supporting member in the Factors table of the Additional Data section of the Design Check Calculation Sheet. The value shown was the factor for parallel-to-grain compression fc , instead of the one for perpendicular-to-grain compression fc┴ . These factors are found in the NDS Supplement, Tables 4A-D and 5A-D.
This is just a reporting issue that did not affect design, and has been corrected.
i) Bearing Load Combination Output at the Free End of a Cantilever (Change 184)
In the Critical Load Combinations section of the Additional Data, the program was showing a bearing load combination at the free end of a cantilever. This has been removed.
1. Design Results Output Improvements
j) Design Ratios as a Percentage (Change 154)
A Preference Setting has been added to allow you to show the design ratio in the Force vs. Resistance output as a percentage, e.g. 87.1 %, rather than a ratio, e.g. 0.87.
The default value for the setting is to continue showing the ratios as a decimal value as in previous versions of the program.
Note that there is 10 times greater precision in reporting the design ratio, so that when it is for example 1.002, the report will show a failed design of 100.2% when percentage is chosen, but a passing design of 1.00 when ratio is chosen.
k) Units Column in Force vs. Resistance Table (Feature 198)
Instead of listing the various physical units, like lbs, kN and plf, in the heading to the table of the Design Check output, the program now lists the unit used for each design criterion in a new column in the table, thus associating the unit used with the design criterion.
l) Member Length in Results by Member (Feature 120)
In the Concept mode Results by Member design summary, the program now outputs the length of each member, by appending it to the section size, e.g. 6x6x12’.
m) Post/Stringer Grade in Materials Specification (Feature 67)
The program now indicates in the third line of the materials specification in the Design check output whether the member is defined as a Beam and Stringer or as a Post and Timber in NDS 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168 respectively. These definitions determine which strength properties NDS Supplement Table 4D are used.
If a custom section is two thin to be in either category, then no category is output and a warning appears in the output. Refer to Bug 2797 to changes made to the warning messages that can appear.
n) Warnings for Incorrect Lumber Sizes (Bug 2797)
A warning did not appear if you entered a custom size for a lumber database that is in fact a timber size according to the definitions in NDS 4.1.3. However, a warning does appear when the reverse is true.
For some cases, such as bending, the lumber sizes are stronger, and for some such as shear the timber sizes are stronger, so there is always a non-conservative error if the wrong grade properties are used. A warning is now shown in both cases.
Also for MSR if a section that is too thick for MSR is entered, the warning saying that the member is too thin for the timber database was shown instead of the MSR message. This has been corrected.
o) Lateral Support Output for Columns (Bug 2835)
For columns, lines appeared in the Materials specification of the Design Check output saying full support at "top" and "bottom", regardless of the actual support conditions and the fact that top and bottom do not apply to columns. 'They have been removed
p) Column Design Table Columns Removed for Beams (Change 166)
The columns for Axial and Combined design criteria, which apply only to columns, have been removed from the Design Summary list of suggested sections for beams
2. Slenderness Ratio for Construction Purposes (Feature 218)
When either of the checkboxes All live loads are construction loads or All roof live loads are construction loads is checked, the program applies a limit of 75 rather than 50 on the slenderness ratio when computing the column stability factor CP, as per NDS 22.214.171.124.
3. Absolute Deflection Limit Default (Feature 167)
We now include the absolute deflection limit in the Default settings so that it can be saved as default for new files. If a value of 0 is entered, then there is no absolute deflection check. It is possible to enter an imperial value as a decimal or a fraction.
4. IBC Fire Resistance (QA Change 12)
The fire resistance procedures for beams and columns from 722.6.3 have been removed from the IBC. We have decided to keep these procedures in the Sizer program for the time being and add “2012” to “IBC” in the description of the option in Beam View.
5. Bug Fixes and Small Improvements
a) Design for Custom Section Size Same as Nominal Size (Bug 2842)
Starting with version 9 of the program, after typing in a value like 10.001 to indicate you want a real member width or depth, the program designed for the nominal depth corresponding to the rounded off number, in this case 9.25 instead of 10. It also failed to update the unit label for the input value to show "in." rather then "nom. In." These problems have been corrected.
b) Shear Design for Oblique Members (Bug 3194)
For shear design, the program checked biaxial design for oblique members by adding the design ratios for the x and y axis, but this has no physical justification and has been removed from the program.
Instead, the program checks the shear stress against capacity in the x- and y- axis directions only. The actual critical shear stress occurs in another plane, and not necessarily parallel to the load.
Due to the complexity of the calculations and the unlikeliness of shear design governing for oblique members, which are rarely notched the program does not attempt to determine the critical shear plane, instead issuing a design note cautioning you that the maximum shear is not one of the shear components shown.
c) Vmax in Additional Data (Bug 3194)
In the Calculation section of the Additional Data report, the value V is now called Vmax, to indicate how it relates to Vdesign.
d) Negative Fire Endurance for Beams (Change 163)
According to the IBC equations, a negative value can appear for the fire endurance time for beams whose width is greater than depth. If this occurs, then the program now sets the time to zero, and adds any fire protection time to zero rather than the negative value.
e) Export of Multi-Ply Supporting Members (Bug 2915)
When a member which is supported by multiple ply members was exported from Concept mode to Beam or Column mode, the program assumed the supporting member has only one ply when assigning a bearing width. Now, it assigns an unknown bearing width, as plies are not input into concept mode groups and the program assumes plies are unknown.
Note that the program does not export the widths or depths of supporting members as they were designed by Concept Mode - if they were unknown in concept groups, then they are unknown in the exported member.
f) Lateral Stability Units in Output (Bug 3120)
In Column Mode Design Check output the Ke x ld value for lateral stability showed inches as the unit, although the value was in feet. This has been corrected.
g) Canadian Nomenclature in Load Table Note (QA Bug 10)
The note under the Load Table indicating that the maximum reaction shown is from a different load combination than the critical one referred to the Canadian load duration factor, KD. It now says CD.
h) Oblique Angle Design Note (Bug 3195)
The following problems with the Design Note for oblique angles have been corrected:
i. Canadian Size Factor
It mentioned the Canadian size factor kzcp. This reference has been removed.
ii. Bearing Width and Length
It was not updated when it became possible to enter a bearing length and width. It says the bearing width used is b, and suggests you modify output bearing length to compensate for the actual bearing width. These comments have been removed.
i) Units in Analysis vs Design Table for Oblique Angles (Bug 3196)
The Analysis vs Design table showed kips for the x-direction shear design when it should be psi, and for kip-ft for both moment outputs when it should be psi. This has been corrected.
In the Calculations section of the Additional Data output, the term EIcomp has been changed to EIeff. This confused some users, because although the I-joist composite action is just a 10% approximation, the true calculations using the McCutcheon method use EIeff for the resultant stiffness, and EIcomp is an intermediate calculation.
In a few places, items in the Analysis vs. Design table which were not indented consistently were adjusted.
The term Anal/Des in the Bearing and Reactions table has been replaced with Des. Ratio
D. Loads and Loads Analysis
5. Different Eccentricity for Each Load (Feature 18)
It is now possible to enter an eccentricity separately for each load, to model for example the situation where some loads are transferred to the column from a beam resting on the top of the column and others enter via a bracket on the side.
This feature eliminates the need for a message box to appear reminding you that eccentricities apply to all loads, which many users found annoying.
Note that the Auto-eccentricity feature (Feature 17 from Version 10, below) applies to all loads, so that you do not have to set this checkbox for each load on the member. In most cases, when an eccentricity that is a percentage of member width is applied, it is required to be applied to all loads.
6. Zero Moment and Shear Points in Diagram (Change 180)
In the Analysis diagram, the program now shows the points where the moment and shear is zero. This is useful for multi-span beams when zero moment points are allowed to be considered the terminal points of lateral support distances.
1. Bug Fixes and Small Improvements
a) Tributary Width Message Box (Feature 196)
The program no longer reminds you every time you change the joist spacing that the tributary width of area loads supported by the floor has changed. Users found this message more annoying than informative.
b) Trapezoidal and Triangular Load Distribution Input (Change 181)
The word “Line” has been added after “Trapezoidal” and “Triangular” load distributions, in the Load View input, to show that these types of loads are line loads and not area loads.
c) Transfer of Uplift Loads in Concept Mode (Bug 3021)
Concept mode was not transferring uplift point reactions from columns or other beams to supporting beams, so that these reactions did not appear in the supporting beams when transferred to beam mode, or in the reactions at the base of other columns supporting the beam. The reactions were not being accounted for in the design of the beam and supporting members.
d) Column Bearing Loads on Beams Exported from Concept Mode (Bug 3023)
When a column supports a beam, which in turn supports another column at the same location, and the beam is exported from concept mode to beam mode, the upper column load was not being included in the bearing design for the beam. Now the upper reaction is transferred to the beam first, then to the supporting column below.
e) Applied Moments at End of Full Span (Bug 2845)
When Full Span was selected as the span input type, applied moments were not included in the loads analysis and the beam would not be designed for the affects of these moments. This could also happen for other span type input fields, but only if the applied moment was entered after a design was already performed once. This has been corrected, and user applied moments are now always included in loads analysis and design.
If the critical load combination for uplift loading was not the same as that for downward bearing, the program was using 1.0 as the self-weight component of the uplift load combination rather than the correct 0.6. This has been corrected.
g) Point Loads at Left End of Rightmost Support (Bug 2857)
A point load in the region over the fixed bearing length of the rightmost support, but to the left of the support point, was included in shear and moment analysis over the design span rather than going directly into the support. Because of the proximity to the support point the moment due to these loads is not high, so this caused only an extremely minor difference in the magnitude and location of the maximum moment point. There is no effect on shear design because the effect of these point loads is neglected due to 126.96.36.199. Bearing design was not affected because the effect of these loads was included in the reaction via loads analysis.
This has been corrected and these point loads are now considered for bearing reactions only.
h) Disappearing Point Loads (Bug 2892)
If a point load located close to the end of beam followed a partial uniform line load, partial uniform area load, triangular load, or a trapezoidal load in the sequence of input loads, the point load was deleted when the other beam dimensions like bearing length, span length, span type, etc. were changed. This has been corrected.
i) Location and Scale in Point of Interest View Drawing (Bug 2782)
The location of the dot in the point of interest view and the scale drawn at the bottom did not properly consider the input span methodology, and were shifted relative to the actual values by the ½ the width of the support for full span and clear span inputs. This has been corrected.
j) Concentrated Loads in Load Table
i. Formatting of Concentrated Load Width and Magnitude in ASCII Output (Bug 2831)
In the Load Table for the Analysis results, Design Summary results, and the old-style text output for Design Check results, the program was showing e;g. 9 instead of 9.00 for the load magnitude, and in the Analysis results, showing the wrong number for tributary width. These problems have been corrected.
ii. Length Units for Area and Concentrated Loads (Bug 2832)
For both area loads and concentrated loads, the program is now showing the units for tributary width in the Load Table itself rather than in the note below indicating that the column is for Tributary width for those loads. Previously, there was inconsistency between concentrated and area loads in that they use different units (m vs mm or ft. vs. in)
In the loads tables, "plf" and "kN/m" were appearing as the units fir concentrated loads rather than "lbs" and kN. This has been corrected.
k) Canadian Note in Load List (Bug 3078)
Under the Loads Output table, there was a note referring to Table 188.8.131.52 from the Canadian version of the program that mistakenly found its way into USA version. The message appeared when wind load, snow load or earthquake load exists, and has been removed.
l) Point Load Location Unit in Analysis Results (Bug 3086)
If a point load is added after any partial UDL, partial area load, or UDL, in the Load list in the Analysis results the start location of the point load is given in mm or inches rather than meters or feet.
m) Total Deflection Factor in Output and Diagram for IBC Deflection Setting
When the setting to calculate the total deflection based on IBC Table 1604.3 deflection factor Use L+0.5D for deflection (Note d) is specified in Loads View, a factor of 1.0 rather than 0.5 appeared in the CALCULATIONS section in the Design Check page and in the deflection analysis diagram.
The total deflection was being calculated correctly when the setting is selected, so this was a display issue only, and has been corrected.
In column load view, the program displayed b beside the loaded face of the member regardless of whether it is loaded on the b- face or d-face according the Load Face input in column view. This has been corrected and d is shown for d-face loading.
E. Program Operation
7. User Defined Logo (Feature 87)
We now allow you to import an image to be used as your company logo in the Design Check calculations sheet, alongside the WoodWorks logo. This logo replaces the four-line Company Information that appears when there is no logo, so we encourage you to include company contact information in the logo.
a) Supported File Types
The image file types that you are able to enter are a JPEG, GIF, BMP, or PNG files.
You input the location on your computer of the logo file in the Company Information settings box. The four line company information input remains in this box as it still appears in all text output files other than the enhanced design check, and in the enhanced design check if a logo is not found. Notes in the box have been added to explain this.
c) Design Check Output
If a logo is found, the program divides the area currently taken by the WoodWorks logo and the Company Information in two, and places the WoodWorks logo in the left portion and your company logo in the right portion. The date that previously appeared in the Company Information box is moved to the Project Information, where the title PROJECT is removed.
If a logo is not found, the output is the same as in Version 10.x of Sizer.
8. Saving Settings as Default and Restoring Original Settings (Feature 42)
Previously, the Sizer program settings were saved as default for new files via the Save as default menu item under the Settings menu. When selected, all the program settings that appear in various tabs of the Settings dialog, and many of the options that appear in Beam View, Column View, and Loads View, would all be saved at once to the initialization file, where they would be used the next time a new file was opened.
Similarly, to restore the settings that are shipped with new installations of Sizer, you selected the Restore ‘factory’ menu item, and all settings and these other options would be reset to their default value.
This system has been overhauled so that it now operates as the Shearwalls program does – a checkbox called Save as default for new files and a button called Reset original settings appears in each of the settings tabs, and in Load Input view for both Beam and Column mode. When the checkbox is checked or the button is pushed, the action applies only to the settings or options that appear on the screen, not to all settings and options.
d) Settings Menu
The sub-items Save as default and Restore ‘factory’ have been removed from the menu. Pushing the Settings menu now goes directly to the settings input dialog. The lengthy messages that used to appear explaining the location of all the items that are restored or saved are no longer necessary and have been removed.
e) Save as Default
A checkbox called “Save as Default for new files” has been added. It defaults to being disabled and checked if no files are open, as in that case the settings can only be used to create defaults for new files. It defaults to being unchecked if files are open, as in that case you may be adjusting the setting for the current file and not want it to persist for new files that are created later.
f) Reset Original Settings
A button Reset Original Settings has been added to all the settings except for
g) Beam View Options
When the Default settings are saved, or restored, they also save or restore the Span type and For unknown bearing length options that show in Beam View rather than in the Default settings. A note in the default settings indicates this
h) Load View Options
Buttons called Save as default options and Reset original options have been added to beam and column Load Input view to save and restore the options shown on the right had side of that view. The only options not saved are those shown are the ones which add a moving concentrated load, enter point load as UDL, and combine loads of same type in drawing. A message box appears when pressing one of these buttons explaining which options are saved or restored.
i) Additional Settings Now Saved as Default
The number of settings and options it is possible to save as default has been expanded to include the following:
- Beam supports area loads from continuous joists
- All live loads/roof live loads are construction loads
Because of the growing number of users that experience crashes upon entering loads view when it is docked to the main program window, the option to show loads view as a pop up window is now the default when you get a new version of the program.
We have added a minimize button to the pop-up window that allows you to dock the window without going to the Preference settings. For most users, docking the window will not cause crashing problems.
a) Web Help
The On-line Help is no longer accessed from a file installed on your computer; it is now accessed via the Web. The Help will now be updated with corrections and for changes to the program as they occur.
b) Update for Version 11 Changes
The On-line Help has not yet been updated for the changes for version 11 described in this document. The Help will have the updated descriptions by May, 2017.
c) USA-specific Help
The Help is now specific to the USA version of the program. References to Canadian design procedures and program operation have been removed.
Upon opening the program, you are now notified if a more recent version is available, and provided with a download link to the updated version.
5. Bug Fixes and Small Improvements
a) Invalid Keycode Message (QA Change 1)
The message that appears saying your keycode is invalid now directs you the WoodWorks Sales email address.
b) Product Code in Software ID (Feature 13)
The three-digit code in the software ID that identifies the software version has been expended to 5 digits.
c) Information in About Sizer box
In the About Sizer box accessed from the Help menu:
Misplaced colons and brackets in the design code and standard sections have been removed.
In the sales and tech support sections, email communication has been emphasized over phoning, phone extensions were added, the fax number was removed, and the website is now a link to the site rather than text.
The words WoodWorks Technical Support were mistakenly removed, and have been put back.
d) Network Installation Error (Bug 3151)
Occasionally, when running the software from the network installation the program would fail, giving the following error message: "When running from a server, the initialization files must be in the 'Common Application Data' folder, refer to the documentation for information network installation."
This problem has been corrected.
e) Default Installation Location
The default installation folder has changed to include the country and the major version number (11). This allows you to have multiple editions on your computer by default, without overwriting editions from other countries and major versions.
f) Start Menu
The start menu folder now includes (USA), so that a Canadian version installed on the same computer will not overwrite the shortcuts to the program components.
g) Groups Dialog for Medium and Large Display Size (Bug 3017)
It was sometimes not possible to view the all the Concept Mode Groups dialog box input fields when medium or large Display Size was selected in Windows. The boxes are now resized to show all of the inputs when these display options are selected.
h) Settings Input for Medium and Large Display Size (Bug 3067)
It was sometimes not possible to view the all the Settings input tabs when medium or large Display Size was selected in Windows. It could happen that you were unable to click the buttons at the bottom that close the boxes.
These boxes have now been reorganized in a shape like that of a typical computer screen, so that the entire box fits in the view regardless of the display option selected.
i) Design Settings Moved to Default Settings Page (Change 155)
The Minimum bearing length settings in the Design settings page have been moved to the Default page to make room for the more design settings.
j) Concept Mode Improvements
i. Warning for Minimum Snap Increment (Bug 2954)
When trying to enter a snap increment below the minimum allowable 1", a message box was being displayed showing an unrelated message. This has been corrected.
ii. Size of Gridpoint Elevation Field (Change 179)
The Gridpoint Elevation field has been widened to accommodate the lengthy text showing the absolute and relative elevation.
iii. Control-C in Concept Mode (Bug 2956)
Control-C in took you to column view when the standard operation is to copy the selected text in an edit control. Ctrl C now copies text and Ctrl-Alt-C is now used to go to column view.
k) Product Code in Software ID (Feature 13)
The three-digit code in the software ID that identifies the software version has been expended to 5 digits.
l) Crash on Opening Files with Discontinued Materials. (Bug 3052)
When opening project files created in older versions of the software which include materials from databases files which are no longer included in the Sizer installation, the program would crash after first issuing warnings. It now allows program operation to proceed with default materials.
m) Nominal vs. Actual Sizes for Standard Section (Bug 2943)
When you typed in a value for a member that is the actual size of a standard section, e.g. 3.5, the program did not switch the label from in nom to in. This has been corrected.
n) Filename in Title Bar for Design Check (Change 187)
The file name was not appearing in the title bar for the Design Check view as it does for all other views. This has been corrected.
o) Apply Button in Settings Dialog (Change 192)
The “Apply” button has been removed from the Settings dialog because it had no effect.
In the list of imperial formatting choices in the Format settings, the examples were prefaced by "eg." rather than "e.g.", the correct spelling, which is now used.
q) Text Offset of Column Dimension Lines (Change 195) *
For the lines dimensioning columns, the text was not drawn in the middle of the dimension line, but was spaced away from the line. Now the text is drawn in the middle of the line.
This hot-fix version was delivered to individual users to correct the bug 3173, Notched Beam Bending capacity. This bug is described in Sizer 11, above, which is the first version for the public with this bug fix.
This hot-fix version was delivered to an individual user to implement Feature 218, Slenderness Ratio for Construction Purposes. This feature is described in Sizer 11, above, which is the first version for the public with the feature.
This hot-fix version was delivered to individual users of the network installation, to correct bug 3151. This bug is described in Sizer 11, above, which is the first version for the public with the change.
Refer also to the changes for below, which was distributed to only a limited number of users.
1. Self-weight of Custom Built-up Beams in Bearing Reaction Diagram (Bug 3098)
The bearing reactions shown in the Analysis diagrams for built-up beams made with custom sections, that is widths or depths not from the standard database, include the self-weight of the entire member multiplied by the number of plies, so that it is too large by the self-weight x ( n-plies -1) . This problem was a display issue only and did not affect bearing design. It has been corrected.
This was released to only a limited number of users as the bulk of users were not informed that is was available until service release 4b had already been made.
1. Column Supporting Member Bearing Design Units (Bug 3090)
The units for supporting member bearing design in the Analysis vs. Design table are showing as kips, but the values are actually in psi. This has been corrected
6. Self-weight of Built-up Columns for Supporting Member Bearing Design (Bug 3089)
For built-up columns, the self-weight used for the supporting member bearing design was the self-weight of one ply multiplied by the number of plies twice, resulting in an axial load that was too large by the self-weight of the member. This has been corrected.
1. Built-up Weak Axis Sy and Iy (Bug 2984)
Starting with version 9, for built up members loaded on the weak axis (d-face), the program used the sum of the thicknesses of the plies as the depth used for determination of section modulus Sy in the expression for bending moment stress fb from NDS 3.3.2 , and for the moment of inertia Iy in the stiffness EI used in deflection calculations. However, this assumes that the plies are rigidly connected, as with glue. As full composite action cannot be achieved by fastening members with bolts or nails, the program once again uses the single ply thickness to calculate S and I for each ply, then sum these values for a composite S and I to determine fb and EI, respectively This results in a greater bending stresses and deflections than the program had been calculating.
7. I-Joist Shear Deflection Constant K (Bug 2985)
The constant K for shear deflection calculations was the value in lbs. multiplied by a factor that converts metric values in Newtons to imperial values in lbs, therefore the constant K was smaller than it should be by a factor 4.43, and total deflection roughly twice what it should be.
The incorrect K value was also displayed in Database Editor. Both problems have been corrected.
2. Program Version for Saved Files (Change 177)
The program now records the version of the program used to save a project file and shows it in the About Sizer box when the file is opened. This feature is primarily used internally at WoodWorks for diagnostics.
3. Beam View Initial Focus (Change 191)*
Starting with version 10 of the program, the initial focus for beam view was set to the Description rather than the Span input. As many users are used to entering spans first, they typed the span length numbers into the Description field instead. This has been corrected and the initial focus is back on the spans.
In order to maintain version numbers in synch with other Design Office programs, there was no Sizer 10.3.
1. Setting for Points of Zero Moment in Calculation of Unsupported Length (Bug 2695)
A setting has been added to allow you to choose whether the points of zero moment (counterflexure) are to be used to delineate the unsupported length for the CL factor calculations in NDS 3.3.3.
The change we introduced with version 10.1 to no longer allow points of zero moment to be used to delineate the unsupported length for KL factor caused large changes in strength of certain multi-span applications, and was questioned by several users. We believe that the decision to make this change was based on sound research, and this is reflected for example in the change to the calculation example 7.5 in the Canadian Wood Council’s Introduction to Wood Design for the 2011 edition. However, at the end of this example, a note says, In some cases engineering may choose an alternate approach… based on .. the distance between support and zero moment or the distance between zero moments. It then refers to Example 13.3 which uses this approach.
For this reason we added an option to allow you to use zero moments.
A Design setting has been added called. Unsupported length Lu ends at points of zero moment (counterflexure).
This setting defaults to unchecked. It is saved with the project file. If a file from a previous version is opened, the setting takes on whatever value is in the Design Settings when the file is opened.
If checked, for each span the program determines the lowest of
- Point of zero moment to support
- Distance between two points of zero moment
- User input lateral support spacing
- Span length
and uses this as the unsupported length. Note that this differs from the implementation before version10.1 which determined this distance only in the vicinity of the critical design moment value. Refer to the discussion in Bug 2708 under version 10.1 below.
2. I-Joist Deflection (Bug 2783)
d) Roof Joist Shear Deflection
For roof I-joists only, the program applied a 10% reduction to stiffness EI to approximate the effect of shear deflection, but also calculated the change needed in EI to implement shear deflection, compounding the effect of shear deflection. This has been corrected by removing the 10% reduction.
e) Floor Joist Composite Action
The program now adds a 10% increase in stiffness for floor I-joists to approximate the effects of composite action with the floor sheathing. Customized versions of WoodWorks Sizer for proprietary I-joist manufacturers such as Nordic Engineered Wood and Web Joist include detailed calculations of composite action.
f) EI in Output
The modified EI for shear deflection and composite action is now shown in the Additional Data of the Design Check report.
3. Design Values in Output for Custom Multi-ply Members (Bug 2859)
In reporting some design values for multi-ply members with a custom section, the program is applying the plies twice, so that values such as section areas, section modulus, S, etc. were mistakenly multiplied by a factor equalling the number of plies.
This caused the errors listed below in the design forces, design resistances, or other outputs. Note that these errors were only in the reporting of the design values and design ratios; the program would not issue a warning message based on the erroneous output showing a design failure, nor would it neglect to include a passing member in the list of suggested sections for this reason.
Note too that this occurs only in the case that you type in your own section, such as 2.5 x 5 rather than using a standard section like 2 x 6, and are using a multi-ply material such as Lumber n-ply, which is a somewhat unusual combination of circumstances.
The following problems entered the program with Version 9.2 and have been corrected for version 10.2:
g) Design Stress Values
The design stresses for shear, fv, axial compression, fc, axial bearing, fc*, and axial tension ft , weak axis moment fby shown in the Analysis column of the Analysis vs. Allowable Stress table were divided by the number of plies, so that the force shown was less than the one actually used for design by a factor of 1/plies. The design ratio shown used the erroneous value for stress, so that a failing design ratio could be shown for a section that actually passed.
The magnitude of the self-weight shown in the load list was greater than the actual load list by the number of plies. This only occurred in the load list shown in the Design Check report, not in the Analysis or Design Summary reports.
i) Shear Value V
In the section under Critical Load Combinations, where the design force V is output, it is larger than it should be by a force equalling the number of plies.
j) Stiffness EI
In the CALCULATIONS section, the weak-axis Deflection Eiy is multiplied by the number of plies squared.
4. Deflection Design for Weak Axis, Custom Multi-ply Members (Bug 2859)
For weak axis design with multi-ply sections, the program was using an EI value for deflection that was less than it should be by the number of plies squared. This resulted much larger than expected deflections. This has been corrected.
5. Multi-ply Member Weak Axis Bending Stress (Bug 2860)
For y-axis moment design, the section modulus S was mistakenly divided by the number of plies. As this value is used to convert the bending moment force Mf to the bending stress fb, the stress used for design calculations is higher than it should be by a factor equalling the number of plies.
This problem occurred for beams, laterally loaded columns and for combined axial and bending design of columns, and has been corrected.
6. Design Search for Unknown Lower End of Section Size Range (Bug 2843)
Starting with version 9, when the lower end of the range of widths or the range of depths is unknown, and the upper end is known, but too small to allow for a successful design, the program searches past the upper end and finds a design. This has been the corrected and the program now reports that no design was found.
8. Notches in Tension vs. Compression (Bug 2801)
Notches were designed as though they were in tension for all load combinations if the notch was in tension for the last load combination in the list of load combinations. This has been corrected and the program now chooses the design routine for notches based on the stress conditions for the load combination being examined.
9. Maximum Lamination Width for Wide Members (Bug 2794)
The default maximum lamination width for members greater then 10.75" was the width of the member, rather than the 10.75" given in 5.3.6 for volume factor C. This value was also used as the lamination width when performing the design search for unknown section size. This has been corrected and 10.75 is used as both the default and when searching through sections greater than 10.75”.
7. Column Beam and Stringer Grade vs. Post and Timber Grade (Bug 2799)
The database editor program now allows you to view both Post and Timber and Beam and Stringer sets of properties for columns in the same way you previously could only for beams.
Since columns with rectangular profiles are somewhat uncommon they are not part of the standard database, so it was not possible in WoodWorks to design for these materials except via a custom section. Now you can create a custom column database that includes Beam and Stringer sizes.
10. Auto-eccentricity for Custom Sections (Bug 2785)
Occasionally, the eccentricity for custom sections when auto-eccentricity is selected was set to zero rather than the calculated auto-eccentricity. This has been corrected and the program now always uses the specified proportion of member width or depth for auto- eccentricity of custom sections.
8. Auto-eccentricity Application (Change 153)
The "Auto-eccentricity" feature has been changed such that it applies to all loads rather than the currently selected loads, so that you do not have to set this checkbox for each load on the member. In most cases, when an eccentricity that is a percentage of member width is applied, it is required to be applied to all loads.
11. Fire Design in the Additional Data
a) IBC Nomenclature (Change 139)**
The symbols for IBC 722.6.3 fire procedure were from the original AWC technical paper 10, not the IBC. It now shows Z instead of z, and "Moment ratio" instead of r.
b) Fire Resistance Rating Units (Change 151)
The fire resistance rating is now reported as 45 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, and 2 h instead of 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min
12. Units for EIy in Additional Data (Change 152)
In the Additional Data section of the program, the units displayed for the EIy value were in imperial when metric units had been selected for display. This has been corrected.
13. Repeating Point Load Crash when using Pop-up Loads View (Bug 2828)
Pressing the "Repeating point load..." button in Loads View would cause Sizer to crash if the Show Loads view in a pop-up window setting is turned on. This has been corrected. Only a small minority of users require this setting to be turned on.
14. Apply to Concept Mode Message (Change 130)**
The message that appears when you press the button Apply options to Concept Mode that appears in the Load Input view, now refers to both Beam view and Column view. Previously it referred only to Beam view even if you pressed the button in Column Loads view.
9. Removal of PSL (Change 156)
The parallel strand lumber (PSL) material has been removed from the program, as it is a proprietary material of Weyerhaeuser and there is no agreement between CWC and Weyerhaeuser to continue software support for this product.
15. Digital Signature (Feature 12)
A digital signature verifying the reliability of the software publisher has been added to the Sizer stand-alone installation, so that disconcerting messages about the software no longer appear when downloading and installing.
**Originally reported as changed for version 10 or 10.1, but change did not enter program until 10.2
A. Engineering Design
1. Lateral Support Changes
Previously, Sizer evaluated the beam stability factor CL for a particular span by determining the unsupported lu in the vicinity of the maximum negative and maximum positive moment points for that span. In doing so, it
- included points of zero moment in mid-span as being equivalent to lateral support points,
- did not include bearing support points if you had input a value for intermediate lateral supports,
- considered the small remainder when lateral supports divided unevenly into a span as being the lu for that region of the span.
- did not reflect this situation in the drawing of the beam
Now, the program uses the smallest of the beam span and the user-input lateral support spacing as the lu in all cases, and the drawing better reflects a typical configuration.
The components of this problem are discussed in more detail below, along with some smaller issues that have been addressed:
a) Point of Zero Moment for Unsupported Length (Bug 2695)
The program had been using the point of zero moment in multi-span beams as if it were a point of lateral support when determining the unsupported length lu for the CL factor in NDS 3.3.3. This is because 184.108.40.206 refers to lateral support of the compressive edge, and the point of zero moment marks the start of the compressive region of the beam edge. For the following reasons, the points along the beam where the moment transitions between positive and negative values are no longer considered start and end points in the calculation of unsupported length:
- Clause 220.127.116.11 refers only to full lateral support, and the commentary to Clause 18.104.22.168 not to evenly spaced purlins, when referring to the compression edge. This does not address the situation where there is no lateral support between bearing supports.
- Research into steel design has shown “points of contraflexure for bending about the major axis are not related to lateral-torsional buckling and therefore cannot be considered as points of lateral support” (Schmitke and Kennedy 1985). The reasoning in this paper applies to wood as well as steel.
Because the program was also evaluating lu in the vicinity of the maximum moment (see bug 2708), this frequently resulted in smaller than expected lu values and higher than expected CL.
b) Unsupported Length for Multi-span Members with Intermediate Support. (Bug 2700)
For a multi-span beam, when you entered a value for intermediate lateral support, the program did not include interior supports as points of lateral support. However, NDS 3.3.3 and 22.214.171.124 say that the beam is to be laterally supported at the points of bearing in the cases of full lateral support and of lateral support by spaced purlins, respectively. This has been corrected, and the program always includes bearing support points as points of lateral support.
c) Lateral Support Evaluated at Point of Maximum Moment (Bug 2708)
The program was determining the lateral support interval to be used in calculating the CL factor for NDS 126.96.36.199 as being the one in the vicinity of the point of maximum moment in a span, so that if lateral supports divided unevenly into span length, and the maximum moment lay within the small remainder distance, that distance would be used as the unsupported length lu rather than the full user input span length. As the exact spacing of the lateral support in this situation is arbitrary, and the aforementioned steel design research indicates that the entire span should be considered as a system, the program now uses the user-input lateral support spacing at all times.
Note that the program would rarely if ever use the small remainder distance, which is positioned at the right end of a span, as the lu , because the maximum positive moment usually occurs at mid-span. The maximum negative moment is usually at a support, in which case the full support distance in the span to the right of the support governs.
However, the use of this method was exacerbating the problems created by bug 2695 (above), in that small lateral support distances created by including the points of zero moments were often in the vicinity of maximum negative moment.
d) Drawing of Lateral Support (Bug 2697)
The drawing of the supports was such that the first support was always placed at one half the input lateral support spacing from the end of the beam.. This created a confusing situation when resulting support is the only one drawn, and at other times resulted in more supports than are necessary. Also the positioning of the support used to calculate the unsupported length lu was based on starting the lateral support spacing at the start of the beam, so was not reflected by what was shown on the screen.
The program now draws the first lateral support at the support point for the top of the beam, to reflect the fact that it is to be laterally restrained at the top. At the bottom, it draws the first support at a distance equal to the lateral support away from the bearing support point. It does so independently for each span.
e) Unit Label for Lateral Support (Bug 2726)
The label indicating whether the input for column lateral support spacing was metric or imperial always showed “in”, meaning inches, even if metric units were selected. This has been corrected.
2. Length of Bearing Factor CB between 6” and 6.375” (Bug 2728)
When a known bearing length is specified that is larger than 6" (150mm) but less than 6.375" the CB factor was being applied when it should not. According to NDS Table 3.10.4, bearing lengths of 150mm (O86) or 6" (NDS) or larger should have a CB factor of 1.0.
16. I-joist Density Used for Self-weight (Bug 2705)
The value stored in the database for I-joist density was converted from the original 13 lb/ cu ft to an extremely high value. This resulted in unrealistically high self weights, which cause extremely high stresses and nonsensical design. It could be avoided by either changing the value using Database Editor back to 13, or by turning off the automatic self-weight and adding the loads manually.
This has been corrected and the original 13 lb/cu ft density has been restored to the database.
17. Auto Eccentricity In Design Search (Bug 2784)*
Sometimes, the program was not resetting the auto-eccentricity to the correct value when examining a new section in the design search. As a result, the program was could fail to show a passing section show include a section that actually fails in the list of passing sections. Furthermore the design ratios shown in the Design Summary sheet did not match those calculated when a section was selected for the detailed design check.
18. Volume Factor Cv for Fire Design (Change 150)*
The calculation of volume factor CV for fire design now uses the reduced cross section as per the note to NDS Table 16.2.2. Previously it was using the full cross section.
F. Program Operation
1. Column Load View Pop-up Window (Bug 2381)
A setting has been added to the Preferences settings to allow you to display column load view in a pop-up window rather than in a permanent view. This was done to circumvent a problem associated with certain touch screen monitors that the program would crash upon entering column load view.
This had been done previously for beam load view (see versions 9.22/9.23, below), but it was found that the problem also occurred, albeit more rarely, with columns.
2. Elimination of Text Output Files (Feature 168)
Some users reported problems when saving Sizer project files to common cloud storage locations like Dropbox, Google Drive, Apple iCloud, and Microsoft SkyDrive. When designing, Sizer outputs design results files to the same folder as the project file, which causes long delays when the cloud storage devices attempt to synchronize these files with the ones already on the system.
For this reason, and because these files cause a certain amount of clutter on users’ hard drives, we have changed the storage location of these output files. .
a) Files Affected
The following files are currently output to the same folder as the project file and will be moved to the new location.
.wd Concept Mode design summary by group
.wdm Concept Mode design summary by member
.wml Concept Mode materials list
.wbd Beam Mode design summary
.wbc Beam Mode code check
.wba Beam Mode analysis output
.wbg Beam Mode graphics data
.wcd Column Mode design summary
.wcc Column Mode code check
.wca Column Mode analysis output
.wcg Column Mode graphics data
b) New File Location
These files are now output to the folder
ProgramData is C:\ProgramData for Windows 7 and 8, and C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data for Windows XP.
FileID is a 32 character length string created by the system uniquely for each project file. The file ID for a particular project file is stored in the project file so it can update these output files at each design run.
c) Files from Previous versions
Any document created with old version of Sizer will be assigned an a new FileID when it is opened with new version of Sizer. All associated output files will be moved from the old folder to the output file folder. In order to store the new FileID, the opened document will be saved automatically with this file ID.
d) Accessing Files
As these files are more difficult for a typical user to find, a menu item has been added called Edit Output File. When invoked, the program will open Notepad and display the file that is showing in the currently active Sizer window. This file can then be saved to any location on the computer, and can also be converted to other formats such as Word documents or .rtf files.
3. Persistence of Project Setting Information (Bug 2752)
When opening files created with Version 8 or before, the program did not retain the Project Information setting. This has been corrected.
4. Default Open File Setting (Change 146)
When in column mode and opening an existing file, .wwc files now appear by default in the File Open dialog. Previously, .wwb for beams was the default.
5. Bearing Support for Disabled Database Files (Change 147)
If all of the database files of a member type have been turned off in database editor, so are not included in the program, the program would crash when that type was selected as a bearing support, or if it was the default type for a bearing support.
The program now allows design to proceed, but support bearing will fail.
3. Link to Custom Version Web Page (Change 137)
The web page that is accessed from Custom versions of Sizer in the Help menu, has been updated to http://www.cwc.ca/index.php/en/woodworks-software/proprietary-products.
G. Data Input
1. Input of Partial Area Roof Live Loads (Bug 2698)
When adding partial area roof live loads, if the tributary width entered was 2' or greater, the program issued a message that the magnitude is restricted to 20 psf, even when it is less than 20 psf, and then assigned a tributary width to the load of 20 feet, even if the width was different than that. These problems have been corrected.
2. Notch Input Persistence (Bug 2722)
In the Beam view input the notch depth and notch length reset to zero when you changed from beams to joists, and would reset to zero after a design. This has been corrected.
3. Bearing at Support End for Walls (Bug 2761)
The Bearing at support end field in beam view is now enabled for walls. Previously it was always disabled; however, an end joist has KB factor of 1.0, which is conservative compared to the CB factor calculated for other joists. For this reason you should have the ability to specify that the wall is supporting a joist at its end.
4. Format of Snap Increment Input (Bug 2741)
A snap increment input as an even number appeared in the View Settings input as e.g. 2-1/1 rather than 3" when the format selected for Imperial units was of the form 3'4-1/2".. This did not affect the operation of the concept mode graphical input.
5. Update of Creep Factor (Change 141)
When you reset original settings for Total deflection due to creep factor, if it is wet service conditions, the program now updates to 2.0 rather than 1.5, as per NDS 3.5.2
6. Update of Creep Factor based on Service Conditions (Bug 2760)
If you change the service conditions from dry to wet, the program changes the creep factor 2.0 to as per NDS 3.5.2, but
this was not reflected in the design of the member unless you first entered loads view
it did not change back to 1.5 if you change from wet to dry.
These problems have been corrected.
7. Asterisk on Column Auto Eccentricity (Change 142)
An asterisk has been added to the column auto eccentricity setting in the design settings, indicating that it is saved to file.
H. Text Output
4. Repetitive Member Design Note for Beams Under Nominal 4" (Bug 2666)
A design note was shown for all non-built-up beams under 4” nominal width saying that the beam is in a system and that a repetitive member factor is applied, even if the repetitive member check box is not checked. This occurred for glulam even though repetitive member factors do not apply to glulam and the checkbox for this is always disabled and unchecked.
Note that this happens for sawn under 3.5” actual and glulam and LVL under 4” actual.
1. Reporting of Incising Factor for Bending (Bug 2720)
The program reports a value of 1.0 for the incising factor for the Fb criterion in the Additional Section of the design results, even though it correctly uses the 0.8 value from Table 4.3.8 when the member is incised. The factors for all other design criteria are correctly displayed.
2. Notch Output
The following problems are associated with the output of notch information in the materials specification of the Design Check report.
a) Zero Joist Notch Depth and Length (Bug 2722)
For joists only, in the materials specification of the Design Check output, the notch depth and unsupported length were showing as zero even though the member designed with the notch depth as input. .
These problems have been corrected.
b) Format of Notch Depth and Unsupported Length (Bug 2724)
The notch depth and unsupported length in the materials specification of the Design Check output was not showing the units employed, was not formatted using the imperial format style chosen in the Format settings. and it was not showing a decimal place for even numbers, e;g. 2 instead of 2.0. These problems have been corrected.
3. Multi-ply Custom Section EI Output (Bug 2729)
The EI value output in the Additional Data section for multi-ply custom section sizes was showing the EI value for all plies combined, not per ply as indicated in the note. This has been corrected.
4. Bearing Width in Output and Diagram (Bug 2746)
When outputting the bearing width used for a multi-ply member, the program shows the width of a single ply of the member if it is less than the user input bearing width. Instead it should show the full width of the member if it is less than the input bearing width. This error occurs in both the Design Results output and the beam diagram.
This is a reporting problem only and the correct bearing width is used for bearing design.
5. Crash and Nonsensical Output for Total Deflection Additional Data (Bug 2748)
If the member is subjected to dead loads only, the total deflection output Critical Load Combinations section in Additional Data did not appear. Occasionally, nonsensical output would appear in its place, and more rarely, the program would crash.
5. Fire Design in the Additional Data
a) Formatting of Table Entries (Change 140)
The factors shown for fire design in the additional data now show up as dashes and not zero if they are not relevant to fire design - these are CD, CM, CT, Cr, Cfrt and Ci.
b) Gypsum Fire Protection in Results Output (Change 149)*
In the CALCULATIONS section on the Design Check results, the line 'Fire protection = xx min'. Now says "Fire protection (gypsum)…
6. Reaction in Analysis Diagram on Right Support with Left Cantilever (Bug 2691)
The value for the reaction on the rightmost support was not shown in the analysis diagram if there is a cantilever on the left end of the beam. This has been corrected.
1. Analysis Diagram Dimension Lines (Bug 2719)
The dimension line and dimensions at the bottom of the analysis diagram disappeared when all four diagrams were displayed, or if the window holding the diagrams was reduced in size. This has been corrected.
A. Design Codes and Standards
Version 10 of Sizer updates several design codes and standards used in the program. The details of the associated changes to the program appear throughout the rest of this list of changes, this section just identifies the design standards changed.
2. Standards Updated (Feature 180)
The implementation in Shearwalls the IBC has been updated from the 2009 edition to 2012, the ASCE 7 from 2005 to 2010, and the NDS from 2005 to 2012 as follows:
a) ANSI / AWC National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS 2012)
Version 10 of Sizer conforms to the NDS 2012, whereas version 9 conformed to NDS 2005. There were significant changes, particularly to glulam material properties.
b) ICC International Building Code (IBC 2012)
Version 10 of Sizer implements the 2012 IBC, whereas Version 9 implemented the 2009 version.
IBC 2012 references ASCE 7 10 for all wind and seismic load generation procedures, so that the updates for ASCE 7 make the program compliant with IBC 2012 in this regard..
The changes to the load combinations for ASCE 7 10 are identical to those in IBC 2012. Throughout what follows, we will refer to these changes as being due to ASCE 7 with the understanding that the same changes are in IBC. .
c) ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10)
Version 10 of Sizer implements the 2010 ASCE 7, whereas Version 9 implemented the 2005 version. There was a significant change to the wind load combinations factor.
3. References to the Design Standards
The references to design standards have been updated in the following places:
a) Welcome, About Sizer, and Building Codes Dialog
The new design standards implemented are listed in the Welcome dialog box that appears on program start-up, and can be invoked later via the Help menu, and in the About Sizer box from the help menu. More detailed information is given in the Building Codes dialog box invoked from the Welcome box.
b) Messages, Notes, and Results Output
The references in all informational and warning messages, and in the Design Summary, Analysis Results, and Design Check Results, have all been updated for the new references.
c) Help File
The Help documentation has been updated both with the new references and with any changes in explanations needed.
4. AITC Reference in Design Notes
The glulam note giving the governing design standards has removed reference to AITC, which was dissolved Jan1, 2013. APA is now responsible for glulam standards.
J. Fire Design
The program now implements fire design procedures from NDS Chapter 16. The option of retaining the procedures from IBC 722.6.3 remains in the program.
1. Choice of Procedures
Radio buttons in Beam and Column Input view allow you to choose between IBC 188.8.131.52 and NDS Chapter 16 procedures. Note that this can be saved as a default for new files via the “Save as Default” and “Restore factory” options, and can be applied to Concept mode via the button in the Load Input view that is used to apply settings input in Beam and Column mode to the open Concept mode file.
A line has been added to the CALCULATIONS section of the Additional Data section of the Design Check results giving the procedure used.
2. Input – Both Procedures
The input for fire design parameters has been moved from a dialog box invoked when the Fire Design button is pressed, to the main Beam Input and Column Input views and the fire design button has been removed.
The input for the default value for whether fire design is applied and the default fire rating have been moved from the Design Settings to the Default values settings page.
Fire design input for Concept mode is still located in the Beam and Column Groups dialog boxes.
The required duration of fire design has been changed in the Default Settings and in Beam and Column view from an input in minutes to a dropdown that allows you to choose between 1 hr, 1.5 hrs, and 2 hrs, with the “factory” default being 1.5 hours. The corresponding setting in Concept Mode remains in minutes.
c) Sides Exposed
The program allows you to select between 0, 3 and 4 sides exposed. This is the same functionality as when the input settings were in the dialog box.
A new input for fire protection is described below.
3. Fire Protection
For both the NDS and IBC procedures, the program now takes into account the protection from fire afforded by materials covering the exposed surfaces of the affected members. This is not specified in either the NDS or the IBC; it comes from Fire Resistance of Wood Members with Directly Applied Protection (Robert H. White 2009)
You are limited to the choices of one- or two-ply 5/8” fire rated (Type X) gypsum wall board for as they were tested and results published for them in Fire Resistance of Wood Members with Directly Applied Protection.
The duration of fire used in the charring calculations is reduced from the required fire rating by the amount of time afforded by the Protection type selected. For one ply 5/8” fire rated (Type X) gypsum wall board it is 30 minutes; for two ply of this material it is 60 minutes. Protection is assumed to be applied to all exposed surfaces
i. Materials Specification
The fire protection material has been added to the line in the materials specification where it currently gives rating and no. of exposed sides.
ii. Calculations Section of Additional Data
The duration of fire protection has been added to the CALCULATIONS section of the Additional Data section of the Design Check results.
4. IBC Procedure
a) Design Code Clause
The IBC clause number has changed from IBC 184.108.40.206 to IBC 220.127.116.11. This is reflected in the input field and in the Design Check output.
b) Fire Protection
Fire protection as described above has been added to this procedure as well as being implemented for the NDS procedure.
5. NDS Chapter 16 Procedure (Feature 1)
The program now implements NDS 2012 Chapter 16, which involves design for bending, axial design, and combined axial and bending of the member using residual cross section after charring, and the use of special modification factors. Note that this procedure first entered the NDS design standard in 2001, however this is the first time it has appeared in Sizer.
The same inputs are used for both procedures, that is Duration, No of Sides Exposed, and Protection, described above.
b) Char Rate and Residual Section
The effective char rates βeff calculated in 26.2-1 and shown in Table 16.2.1 are used, based on a nominal char rate βn of 1.5 in./hr. as recommended. A residual section size is calculated using this char rate multiplied by the input fire duration rating.
c) Loads Analysis
i. Load Types and Combinations
Only load combinations involving Dead, Live and Snow are evaluated at reduced cross section for fire design criteria (earthquake, wind, live roof, and impact are excluded).
ii. Deflections for Loads Analysis
The member is analysed using the stiffness EI of the full section. Since stiffness is constant over the length of the member, the resulting reactions and stresses are the same as for the reduced section.
i. Design Criteria
The design criteria given in 16.2.2 are calculated using the residual cross section as the member breadth b and depth d values. These are
For beams and columns:
- Bending – positive moment
- Bending – negative moment
For columns only
- Axial compression
- Combined bending and axial tension
- Combined bending and axial compression
These design criteria are equivalent to the main design criteria of shear, bending, deflection, and vibration. The member design is considered to have failed if one of them fails, and the program passes over a candidate section when designing for unknowns if it fails one of these criteria.
ii. Adjustment Factors
The adjustment factors shown in Table 16.2.2 are the only modification factors applied. The size factor CF , glulam volume factor Cv, and flat use factor Cfu are calculated using the full cross section of the member ; the stability factors CL and CP use the modified section.
i. Analysis vs. Design Table
A section at the end headed by Fire has been added, and a line for each fire design criterion giving stress, allowable stress, and design ratio.
ii. Factors Table in Additional Data
Lines have been added for each fire design criterion giving the modification factors to. Modification factors not in Table 16.2.2 and which are irrelevant to fire design are shown with a dash.
The CALCULATIONS section of the Additional Data section of the Design Check results gives the size of the residual section, the char rate, and the Design Stress to Member Stress factor from Table 16.2.2 for each design criterion used. It also repeats that the CD factor = 1.0 for emphasis.
K. Other Engineering Design
1. Glulam Lamination Widths for CV Factor
The program now uses a lamination width that you enter in Beam Input view as the “b” value in equation 5.3-1. Previously it conservatively used the member width, which is the maximum lamination width in most circumstances.
a) Unknown Section
If the member width is selected as Unknown, or a range of values, the program conservatively uses the member width as the maximum lamination width for initial selection of passing sections. When a section is selected for detailed design, you can then enter a different maximum lamination width and redesign.
b) Default Value
Each time a new member width is selected, the program defaults to using the member width as the maximum lamination width, and you must change it if you want a smaller lamination width.
c) Use Member Width for CV Factor
A check box allows you to use the member width as the value b despite having a narrower lamination width (which could result in a smaller volume factor Cv.) This would ordinarily be done for glulam members constructed from remanufactured lumber, which require that the member width be used.
A note appears in the Additional Data section of the Design Check results if this checkbox is checked and the max. lamination width does not equal the member width.
d) Non-edge Bonded Laminations
This input, which controls whether a factor is applied to the Fvy value, is now active only when the maximum lamination width is less than the member width, so that edge-bonding is possible.
The maximum lamination width appears in the materials specification of the Design Check summary.
2. Glulam Shear Reduction Factor Cvr Factor
NDS 2012 5.3.10 has been added to specify a shear reduction factor Cvr of 0.72 applied to the Fvx and Fvy values when members are notched or subject to impact loads. This is the same factor that was previously specified via notes to the glulam tables in the NDS Supplement - Table 5A, note 4; Tables 5A Expanded and 5B, notes 3
This factor was previously applied to notched members only, and appeared under a column Cn for notches that included the shear reduction factor from tables 5A and 5B multiplied by the notching factor from NDS 18.104.22.168. This column has been renamed Cn*Cvr. The explanatory note below the table has been adjusted accordingly.
b) Impact Loads
Previously, the program did not apply this factor for impact loading. It is now applied to any load combination that includes impact loads, and if it is the critical load combination, the factor appears in the renamed column Cn*Cvr .
3. I-Joist Lateral Support
The disabled input field for lateral supports for I-joists now shows the Fully Supported at top and bottom, rather than At Supports, to comply with NDS 7.3.5 stating that the CL factor is 1.0 only if fully supported on the compression flange, and in the absence of design procedures in Sizer for I-joist lateral support. The lateral support appears in the beam drawing, but not in the material specification in the design check output.
4. Flat Use Factor for Timbers
The program has implemented the change to the Adjustment Factors to Table 4D in the NDS Supplement, such that the existing component of the size factor CF that is applied to the wide face of members has been renamed Cfu, the flat-use factor. In the Modification Factors table in the design results, the number that used to appear in the Cf column for members loaded on the wide face now appears in the Cfu column.
5. Default Deflection Limit for Walls and Columns
The default deflection limit that is shipped with new installations of Sizer or occurs when you select Restore ‘factory’ settings has been changed from L/180 to L/120, to conform with IBC table 1604.3 for flexible finishes (such as drywall).
6. Repetitive Member Factor for Wind Loads On Walls (Change 129)
The checkbox in Column view that allows you to specify special repetitive member factors for wind loads on walls has been changed as follows
a) AF&PA Reference
The reference to AF&PA has been changed to AWC.
b) IBC Reference
The reference to IBC 2306.2.1 has been removed, as this provision was dropped for the 2009 IBC.
The text has been reworded to ask whether you want to apply the factor, not just whether the wall is sheathed in a way to allow it.
7. New Checks for Bending and Axial Compression
New conditions, 3.9-4, 15.4-2 and 15.4-4 have been added to the equations for combined axial and bending resistance. Because Sizer restricts columns to uniaxial bending plus axial forces, and beams do not have axial forces, these equations are not required by Sizer because the conditions are met by the main equations, 3.9-3, 15.4-1, 15.4-3 and the other checks beneath these equations.
Note that according to the commentary to these clauses and the restrictions to the fc < fcE1 and fb1 < fbE checks indicate this equation is not required for columns that are loaded only in the flatwise direction, so does not apply to columns loaded with edgewise loads.
As a consequence, no design changes were necessary, but the addition of the new clause 15.4-2 required renumbering of previous 15.4-2 to 15.4-3. This is reflected in the Analysis vs Design table of the Design Check summary, and in the load combination notes below.
L. Loads and Loads Analysis
1. Wind Load Combination Factor
ASCE 7 and IBC now have an Allowable Stress Design (ASD) wind load factor of 0.6, rather than the previous 1.0; see ASCE 7 2.4.1 and IBC 2012 1605.3.1. This change is in conjunction with new wind speed maps with higher wind speeds intended for strength-level design.
a) Wind Load Factor
For all load combinations with a wind load component, that component is now factored by 0.6, in addition to the 0.75 factor for multiple non-dead load types that may be in the combination.
The format for the load combination as it appears anywhere in the program is similar to the corresponding earthquake combination:
.6D+.7E -> .6D+.7W
D+.75(L+.7E) -> D+.75(L+.6W)
You can indicate in the Load Input view that the wind load is a Component and Cladding (C&C) load and that you wish to take advantage of IBC 1604.3 Note f, which applies an additional factor for deflection design. Because of the new 0.6 load factor, the program now factors the wind load by 0.42 = 0.6 x 0.7, whereas it used to factor by 0.7 only. The load combination used for deflection design is now shown as, e.g., D+.75(L + .42W).
2. Earthquake and Live Roof Combinations
Load combination 6 from ASCE 7 2.4.2, which includes a wind or earthquake load in combination with other loads, has been split up into 6a and 6b such that earthquake loads are not combined with live roof loads. All load combinations generated by Sizer which include earthquake and live roof have thus been removed. These are
Sizer implements this change in generating any load combinations which include a wind factor.
3. Automatic Eccentricity of Axial Loads (Feature 17)
Sizer now allows you to apply an eccentricity proportional to the width or depth of the column, rather than an absolute value, to deal with uncertainty as to where the load will actually bear on the column.
a) Member Types
This applies to both columns and wall studs, with the eccentricity for wall studs restricted to the wall depth direction only.
A setting has been added to the Design Settings for the percentage of the member width or depth to apply as axial load eccentricity to those columns that use auto-eccentricity, with a default of 16.7% = 1/6 of member dept, an amount commonly used.
A checkbox indicates whether this eccentricity is to be applied to all axial loads in the direction of the load face selection. If checked, the word “Auto” shows up in the eccentricity input, which is disabled. “Auto” also shows up in the loads list.
i. Known Section Size
For a known section size, the program applies an eccentricity of the percentage entered in the setting of the member width or depth, according to the Load Face selected in Column Loads view.
ii. Unknown Design
When cycling through sections for unknown design, the program re-analyses the member to determine the new bending stress and combined combined axial and bending results based on the eccentricity for each new section width or depth.
i. Design Summary
In the Design Summary, for unknown section size, the program shows Auto in the Eccentricity column of the load list. For known section size it shows the calculated eccentricity.
ii. Design Check
In the Design Check output, where the section size is known, the program shows the calculated eccentricity using the proportion input in the settings.
4. Live Roof Load Limit
Live roof loads are now restricted to 20 psf by IBC 1602.1 the remainder of the live load on the roof should be entered as an ordinary live load. Note that this limitation is not in ASCE 7-10, but so as to comply with IBC 2012, Sizer has implemented this limitation.
If a live roof load is entered greater than 20 lbs, it is automatically changed to 20 lbs and a message appears prompting you to enter the remainder as an ordinary live load. .
Note that if you insisted on following ASCE 7-10 rather than IBC 2012, you could enter more than one live roof load. The intention of this feature is to alert users to the IBC requirement.
5. Table 1604.3 Note d Label In Column Input
In Column Loads view, the input for Use L + 0.5D indicates that it is for Note d of IBC Table 1604.3, similar to Beam Loads view. Previously the note letter was missing.
M. Materials Database
1. Southern Pine Lumber Values (Feature 192)
The Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB) changed values for dimension lumber material 2-4” thick in the SPIB Supplement 13 , effective June 1, 2013, for Southern Pine and Mixed Southern Pine species. These changes were implemented in the following materials:
- Lumber-soft for beams and jJoists
- Lumber-other for joists (Mixed Southern Pine)
- Lumber n-ply for beams, joists, columns and walls
- Lumber-post for columns.
- Lumber stud for walls.
The database files created were distributed to users in advance of the release of the Design Office and Sizer version 10 releases, in May 2013, and are also in the version 10 release.
2. Southern Pine 2012 Values (Bug 2657)
The changes to Southern Pine design values published in the March 2012 Addendum to the NDS Supplement were implemented in version 9.2 only for lumber 2" thick, not for 3" and 4" thick. Therefore southern pine dimension lumber beams and joists 3" and 4" thick may possibly be under designed.
3. I-Joist Values (Feature 61)
The default values for the custom I-Joist database now come from the APA document Performance Rated I-Joists, found at http://www.apawood.org/pdfs/download_pdf.cfm?PDFFilename=managed/Z725.pdf . Previously they were from an older, unknown source,
You are encouraged to change these values to correspond to the manufacturers specifications for the I-joists you are designing, using Database Editor.
4. Glulam Table 5A Values for Members Stressed Primarily in Bending
There were numerous changes for NDS 2012 vs. NDS 2005 for glulam table 5A for members stressed primarily in bending, which were applied to the Glulam-Balanced and Glulam-Unbalanced materials for beams and the Glulam-Unbalanced materials for columns. The changes are summarised as follows:
- Remove 20F- V9 combination
- Add 16F V3, 20F-V14, 20F-V15, 20F-E8, 24F-E/SPF1, 24F-E/SPF3, 24F-V8, 26F-V5 combinations
- The Fbx- value was increased slightly for five combinations
- The Fvx value increased from 215 to 165 for the 16F E3 combination and reduced from 210 to 195 for the 20F 1.E stress class
- The Ex value was increased slightly for 7 combinations and the Ey value changed for 11 combinations, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing
- Fby changed for most combinations, sometimes increasing, sometimes decreasing.
- The Fc┴x value changed from 740 to 805 for 6 combinations, and from 650 to 740 for 16F-V2
- Ft changed for most combinations, sometimes increasing, sometimes decreasing.
- Fc changed for 11 combinations, sometimes increasing, sometimes decreasing.
- The specific gravity G changed for the 16F.1.3 and 20F 1.5 E stress classes.
- Fvy increased for 4 combinations, but decreased for the 20F 1.5E stress class.
5. Glulam Table 5B Values for Members Stressed Primarily Axially
There were numerous changes for NDS 2012 vs. NDS 2005 for glulam table 5B for members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression, which were applied to the Glulam-Uniform materials for beams and the Glulam-Axial materials for columns. The changes are summarised as follows
- Remove all E-rated combinations
- Change the name of combinations 47 (SP N2M14) and 48 (SP N2D14) to N2M12 and N2D12.
- Add combinations 73, 74, 75 (species POC, grades L3, L2, and L1D), and 49 1:14 (SP N1M14).
- Increase slightly value of FT for 1 (DF L3) and 5 (DF L1D)
- Change grade name for combination 5 from L1D to L1.
- Increase the 2-3 lamination Fc value slightly eight of the Western Species combinations
- Change the Fby value for combination 22 (SW L3) from 550 to 575
- Increase the Fbx value slightly for 6 combinations, both Southern Pine and Western species.
6. 12” and 14” Glulam Widths
NDS Table 1C includes 12-1/4” glulam width for Western Species, and APA recommends adding 14” and 16” nominal widths (which are app. 12” and 14” actual) for both Western Species and Southern Pine. Although rare and usually available only via a custom order, they are considered standard sizes.
a) Western Species
For Western Species, 12-¼” wide and 14¼” wide sections have been added. The range of depths depends on the material as follows:
i. Uniform beams and columns
For 12-¼” widths, depths from 12 to 16½; for 14¼” widths, depths from 13-3/4 to.19-1/2.
ii. Balanced and Unbalanced beams
For 12-¼” widths, depths from 13½ to 60; for 14¼” widths, depths from 13-3/4 to 60.
b) Southern Pine
For Southern Pine, 12” wide and 14” wide sections have been added. The range of depths depends on the material as follows:
i. Uniform beams and columns
For 12” widths, depths from 11 to 15-1/8; for 14” widths, depths from 13-3/4 to.17-7/8.
ii. Balanced and Unbalanced beams
For 12” widths, depths from 12-3/ to 60½; for 14” widths, depths from 14 to 60½ .
7. Fby Values For 24F-1.7E SP and 24F-1.7E WS (Bug 2665)
For Stress Classes 24F-1.7E SP and 24F-1.7E WS for both Glulam-unbalanced beams and columns, and Glulam-balanced beams files the Fby value was entered as 850 when it should have been 1050 according to the 2005 NDS Supplement. This has been corrected.
8. Timber Actual Sizes
Dry actual sizes have been added to the In NDS Supplement Table 1A for timbers 5” and thicker, whereas previously only wet sizes = nominal – ½” were given. As Sizer designs for dry sizes for all other materials, it now implements the new dry sizes for these materials rather than the previous wet values. The changes for both the b and d dimensions are
Nominal 8 : Previously 7.5, now 7.25
Nominal 10 : Previously 9.5, now 9.25
Nominal 12 : Previously 11.5, now 11.25
Nominal 14 : Previously 13.5, now 13.25
Nominal 16 : Previously 15.5, now 15
These changes affect the Timber-soft, Timber-other and Timber-hard materials for beams and columns.
9. Coast Sitka Spruce and Yellow Cedar
The Coast Sitka Spruce and Yellow Cedar species have been added to the Lumber-other database file. Coast Sitka Spruce is named C. Sitka Spruce to keep it within the allowable name length.
10. Northern Species Fb and Ft Values
For the joist material Lumber-other, the Northern species Fb value has changed from 1000 to 975 psi for SS Grade and from 600 to 625 psi for No1/2. For SS the Ft changed from 450 to 425 psi.
11. Fvy for Multiple Non-edge Glued Laminations
A special value of Fvy appears in Database Editor for multiple laminations that are not edge glued for materials in the Supplement from Table 5B (loaded primarily axially), along with an explanatory note. This input has been obsolete and unused since version 2004, and has been removed, along with the note.
12. Fc for I-Joists in Database Editor (Change 134)
Database editor showed a value of zero for axial compression Fc for I-joists, which Is not relevant to I-joist design. It no longer appears in database editor.
13. K for I-Joists in Database Editor (Change 135)
Starting with version 9.3, Database Editor always shows a value of zero for shear constant K for I-joists. This has been corrected, and the value from the database is now shown.
N. Concept Mode Operation
1. Dead Load Factor for Concept Mode Files from a Previous Versions (Bug 2658)
When a concept mode file from a certain older version of Sizer, we are not sure which, was opened with version 9.x, a dead load factor of zero was registered so that all dead loads were ignored. This has been corrected.
2. Concept Mode Crash For Triangular Joist Area With No Dead Loads (Bug 2659)
Triangular joist areas in concept mode without any dead loads, and for which self-weight is set to Manual input , were causing Sizer to crash when designing or exporting a member that is below the triangular joist area in the building.
3. Transfer of Partly Uplift and Partly Gravity Reactions from Joist Area to Supporting Member (Bug 2660)
When a member supports a joist area such that one end of the transferred reaction is positive (gravity) and the other end of the load is negative (uplift), and the reaction load does not start at the beginning of the supporting member, the two triangular loads created (positive and negative) were not positioned correctly. This has been corrected.
4. Transfer of Loads from Column Close to Intersection of Beams (Bug 2661)
When a column is close to the intersection of two beams, one of which supports the column, sometimes the program identified the other beam as the support. This has been corrected.
5. Uplift Reactions at Base (Bug 2672)
When showing reactions at base for each load type in plan view, Sizer omitted the reaction from any load type if it was negative (uplift), and instead shows a combined uplift load after a U symbol.
The program now shows the negative value for all load types separately in addition to the combined uplift from the critical load combination.
6. Partial Line Loads on Beams (Bug 2673)
In Concept mode, when creating a load on a beam by selecting two gridlines within the beam, the program applied the load to the entire beam. This has been corrected and the program now creates a partial load between gridlines.
O. Input and Output
1. 19.2” Spacing (Change 132)
An option of 19.2” spacing has been added to the spacing input for joists and walls, corresponding to an 8 foot sheet of plywood divided into 5 spans.
2. Glulam Inputs in Materials Specification Output
a) Glulam Wane
For those unusual Southern Pine combinations which contain wane on one or both sides, this is now output to the materials specification of the Design Check results.
b) Glulam Edge Bonding
The program now outputs whether laminations are not edge bonded in the material specification. This is only possible if the new input for maximum lamination width is less than the member width.
3. CV and CL in Modification Factors Table
Previously, when both CV and CL were less than one, the Modification Factors table would show the lesser of these two factors, and the other factor as 1, to indicate that the program was complying with NDS 5.3.6, which says only the lesser of these factors is to be applied. Now the program shows the calculated value for both CV and CL and a note under the table indicating that the lesser of these values is used.
4. 1.5 Creep Factor in Additional Data (Change 133)
The 1.5 creep factor from NDS 3.5.2 sometimes appeared in the Calculations section of the Additional Data of the Design Check output even when this value was not activated in the input and was not in fact being applied.
5. Design and Default Values Settings (Change 131)
The addition of a Default Values settings page with version 9.3 caused the Design Settings tab to also be called Default Values. This has been corrected.
1. Key Code Information for All Users (DO Change 1)*
The registration key code information is now stored in the program data folder for all users and not in the profile of a particular user. This allows multiple users can use the program on the same machine without entering the key code for each user.
2. Uninstall Database
A utility has been added to the Sizer stand-alone installation that allows you to remove the materials database, hold-down database, initialization files containing program settings, default loads for Sizer. The purpose of this utility is to resolve difficulties that may occur when you try to install a newer version of the program with an incompatible database from older versions. It can also be used to restore the databases and settings that were originally shipped with the program.
For Windows 7, the utility removes the information from C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\WoodWorks\CWC\USA\10\. A checkbox also allows you to remove the information from the back up folder C:\ProgramData\WoodWorks\CWC\USA\10\. If you are trying to resolve installation problems, then the check box should be checked. If you are trying to restore the original database and settings, it should not be checked.
The corresponding Windows XP folders are C:\Documents and Settings\username\Local Settings\Application Data\WoodWorks\CWC\USA\10\ and
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\WoodWorks\CWC\USA\10\.
A. Engineering Design
3. Bearing Design Changes
a) Sloped Bearing Note (Change 111)
The note giving the design code clause for sloped bearing has been moved to the CALCULATIONS section of the Additional Data. It was incongruous with the other data in the Critical Load Combinations section.
b) Wall Supporting Members for Beams (Change 120)
The program now allows beams to be supported by walls in beam mode, in order to take into account the compressive resistance of a wall top plate. Wall supports are still not allowed for beams in concept mode; a column usually representing built up wall studs must be embedded in the wall.
c) Axial Compressive Resistance Fc for Sloped Custom Section Beam Bearing Design (Bug 2597)
Database Editor did not allow input of the axial compressive resistance, Fc, value for parallel-to-grain compressive resistance for beams, so that for custom databases, the compression angle-to-grain bearing resistance for sloped members from CSA O86 5.5.8 used a random value for fc and resulted in nonsensical output for bearing resistance. You can now enter Fc for beams in database editor. Existing custom database files should be modified to include an Fc value.
4. Shear Reduction for Point Loads Within d of Support
a) Measurement of Distance d From Support (Bug 2507)
Starting with version 9 of the program, the reduction of shear due to point loads within d of support (NDS 22.214.171.124a) was including half the minimum bearing length in the x and d values. For interior supports half the full bearing length was being included. This resulted in the shear value being reduced less than it should have been, as the distances x and d did not extend as far into the span as it would have if it was measured from the edge of the support.
b) Effect of Point Loads at Cantilever End (Bug 2508)
The program determines the reduction of shear due removing point loads within d of a support not only at the support close to the loads, but it approximates the effect at the support at the far end of the span. It was mistakenly doing so at the end of a cantilever span with no support. This has been corrected. Note that this did not cause any problems in design for shear, because shear is zero at a cantilever end.
c) Size Factor (CF) for Dense Select Structural and Dense No. 1 Timbers (Bug 2634)
For the size factor CF for bending strength Fb for timbers 5 x 5 larger from Table 4D of the NDS 2005 Supplement, when the load is applied to the wide face of the member, the factors .86 for Select Structural and .74 for No. 1 were not being applied to the Dense Select Structural or Dense No 1. grades, when they should have been. Instead the program was non-conservatively applying 1.0. Similarly, for the CF for E and Emin for Dense No. 1, it was applying 1.0 instead of 0.9.
AWC confirmed that the intention of the NDS is that the Dense varieties of these grades are to be treated the same as the regular grades in this regard. This has been corrected.
Note that for NDS 2010, the size factor for the wide face has been renamed flat use factor Cfu, but the factors applied are the same. NDS 2010 will be implemented in version 10 of Sizer.
Q. Concept Mode Operation
1. Disabled Database File in Concept Mode (Bug 2541)
Concept mode crashes on design or export of member if you try to access a member from a database file that has been disabled in Database Editor. Previous to version 8, the program would design for an inactive database as long as it found the database file on the computer, regardless of whether it was disabled. If it was not found it would issue a warning on both the screen and in the output. The program now shows a warning message informing you that materials are no longer available when opening file, running design, or exporting to beam/column mode, and halts design or export. The message instructs you to re-activate the materials in database editor or change the materials in the groups dialog. The message shows the list of groups that are missing their materials and shows the materials names and file names that are missing.
2. Design for Disabled Species in Concept Mode (Bug 2542)
In Concept mode, if designing for a material that hat has a species that had been turned off in Database Editor occurring in the species list before the selected species, a crash occurred on design. This has been corrected.
3. Operation of Snap Increment Setting (Bug 2536)
The following problems affecting the operation of the snap increment input in the View tab of the Settings have been corrected:
a) Input Units
The units for the snap increment have been changed from feet or metres to inches or mm, so that you do not have to enter e.g. 0.33333 for 4". The input form now shows the units being entered (in or mm) whereas previously it just showed the number.
b) Unit Conversion
When changing from metric to imperial, the program used the same numeric snap increment without converting it. It now converts to a round number in the other unit system.
c) Setting Update
Occasionally, the snap increment was set to zero rather than updating when re-entering the settings, and a strange message about web openings appeared when you tried to exit the box. This has been corrected.
d) Saving Default
The snap increments were not being written to the initialization file as defaults for new projects. This has been corrected.
4. Operation of View Limits Setting (Bug 2536)
The following problems affecting the operation of the snap increment input in the View tab of the Settings have been corrected:
a) Input Units
The input form now shows the units being entered for the view limits, ft or m.
b) Conversion between Metric to Imperial
The conversion between metric and imperial units was inconsistent, sometimes converting between the unit systems and sometimes just displaying the same numeric value in the new unit system. This has been corrected and the program converts between unit systems at all times.
c) Saving Default
The saving of the view limits to the initialization file was inconsistent, sometimes allowing you to save the default for new files and sometimes not. This has been corrected
5. View Options for Concept Mode in Initialization File (Bug 2527)
The view options for Concept Mode were not in the initialization file provided with our installations, and have been added. This has no effect on program operation because the default values are also in the program itself; it is just a maintenance issue.
6. Gridpoint Elevation Update (Bug 2537)
When updating a gridpoint elevation in Concept Mode, the program requires a mouse click somewhere else, and if the click is made on the plan view, the program behaved erratically, often moving some elements to a new gridline it creates. It was not possible to undo this change. This happened most often when "Cancel" is pressed when asking to confirm elevation change. These problems have been eliminated from the program.
7. Message Joist Transfer from Concept Mode to Beam Mode (Bug 2539)
Occasionally, and even on very simple structures with no grid point elevations so all joists lie in the horizontal plane, when transferring a joist area to beam mode a message appeared saying there were out- of plane joists, and that a line load on the supporting beam could not be made from the area load on the joist. However, the joist area transferred successfully anyway. The problem has been corrected and the misleading message box no longer appears.
R. Beam and Column Mode Operation
1. Beam and Column Data Input View Size (Bug 2575)
When the Windows font size is set to larger than 100%, then the beam and column mode splitter windows did not by default extend far enough to expose all of the input data. This has been corrected and the data is always shown.
2. Lateral Support Spacing Update (Bug 2560)
In the input for the top lateral support spacing in Beam view, when a value in mm was then the “Run design” button was pressed and you returned to beam view, the decimal place had shifted three spaces to the left. This was a problem in the user interface only; it did not affect design and the design summary output was showing correct values for the top lateral support spacing. This has been corrected.
1. Span Input Corruption for Long Spans (Bug 2455)
Occasionally, for multi-span beams with long spans, the span lengths entered become scrambled when constructing the beam model and beam design was not possible. This issue was fixed for most cases for version 9.2, but there remained some situations that were addressed with version 9.3.
S. Results Output and Diagrams
1. Built-up Beam Dimensions for Custom Beam Sizes (Bug 2580)
For built-up custom sections, including those with custom depths, the width shown in the material specification of the design check output was not being adjusted for the number of plies correctly. Instead of reporting e.g. 1.5" x 16", 5 ply (7.5" x 16") both the singly ply width and the total width were mistakenly multiplied by number of plys giving: 7.5" x 16", 5 ply (37.5" x 16") This was also happening for metric units, and has been corrected.
2. Self-weight Note in Analysis Diagram (Bug 2604)
At the top of the Analysis Diagrams, for known sections, the program indicated self-weight is included even you have set it for manual input of self weight. This line has been removed for manual input of self-weight.
3. Effect of Lateral Support in Beam Drawing (Bug 2528)
The drawing of the lateral support material on the top of the beam was not taken into account when positioning dimensioning lines and loads above the member, so these were partly obscured. This has been corrected.
4. Positioning of Span Identifiers in Diagram for Negative Slope Beams (Bug 2530)
When beams have a negative slope, the words Clear, Full, and Design that identify the span types appeared in random locations, often over top of other drawing elements, rather than in a neat column at the left of the beam as for positive slopes. This has been corrected.
5. Trailing Zeroes in Length and Pitch Data (Changes 110 and 113)
The length of spans, total length of member, Ke factors, and unsupported lengths appearing in the material output that are whole numbers now show just one zero rather than several trailing zeroes. When the pitch is a whole number, it does no longer shows zeroes, e.g 4/12 instead of 4.0/12.0
T. Installation and General Program Operation
1. XML Transfer to Other Programs (Feature 186, unless otherwise noted)
a) New Program Features
The following features first implemented in version 8 now can be passed via the XSML link
- Span type (Design Span, Clear Span, Full Span)
- Supporting member Type, Material, Species, Grade, Bearing length, Bearing width, Bearing at support end, Point load bearing length, Point load bearing width, column Lower support
- Unknown bearing length options (Use exact minimum, round to closes fraction, pick from section list, round exterior but use list for interior)
- Member description
b) Project File Save Location
Indicate to Sizer the name of the project file created from the XML data, and what folder to save it in, for Interactive Mode only.
c) Width And Depth Input
The program was sometimes interpreting width and depth inches as feet. This has been corrected.
d) Roof Joist vs. Floor Joist
The XML transfer can now distinguish between joist types.
e) Automatic vs Manual Self-weight
The Sizer program was disregarding the setting passed as to whether the self-weight was automatically included by Sizer in loads analysis.
f) Company Info
The four lines of company info were offset by one line; this has been corrected.
g) Design Search Failure Warning after XML Transfer (Change 124)
The warning message during the design search that says a section cannot be found is suppressed when running in silent mode after XML file transfer.
h) Version Info (Change 125)
The XML file transfer now includes the version information, in the form Major Version, Minor Version, Update Number, Build Number, and Country, with country being Canada.
i) Combined Axial and Bending Results (Change 126, Bug 2613)
The XML file transfer was not including the results for column or wall stud combined axial and bending, so that if a column failed this check it was not evident in silent mode. This has been corrected.
2. Project Settings Saved As Default (Bug 2255)
Starting with version 8.0 of the program, the Project Settings were saved when you selected Save as default under Settings, when they shouldn’t be because one can expect them to be different with each new project. Now each new project, or each new beam, column or concept file created outside of a project, has blank Project information by default. However, you can create new beam column, and concept files with the same project information by including them in the same project (i.e. by File, New Project).
3. Retaining Default Loads from Previous Installation (Change 116)
It is now possible to retain the default loads created while using a previous installation of the program when installing Sizer 9.3. They are now included when you indicate during installation that you want to retain program settings. The installation includes an empty default loads file to facilitate this.
4. Default Values Settings*
A new settings page has been added called Default Values, and the Deflection Limits settings have been moved from the Design Settings to that page
This version was not distributed for general use, the program was modified and sent to a particular user with the need for the following feature, which will be in all subsequent versions of the program.
1. Lateral Support in Concept Mode (Feature 182)
You are now able to specify in Concept mode whether beams and joists are laterally supported on the top and on the bottom. The choices are full support or support at bearing only; there is no input of a support interval. The default for both member types is to be supported at the top.
These versions were not distributed for general use, they were given to users with a problem associated with certain touch screen monitors that the program would crash upon entering beam load view (Bug 2381). The solution was to allow beam load view to appear in a permanent window rather than the usual permanent form view.
In Version 9.22, beam load view always appeared in a pop-up window. For version 9.23, a setting was added to the Preferences settings to allow a choice as to whether it would show up in beam load view, and those users with the problem were instructed to select that setting. This setting appears in all subsequent versions of the program.
It was later discovered that several users with this problem had the Wacom 21UX touch screen and mouse. It has also been experienced by users with other touch screen devices.
This version was issued as Sizer Stand-alone Edition only. Compared with the last Stand-alone release, the program also includes the changes from Sizer 9.2 , described below.
1. Slow Run Times for Files Saved to Network Server (Bug 2497)
For certain Windows 7 security configurations, Sizer runs a design on a file that is saved to a network file server very slowly. It runs the expected fraction of a second when saving to the local computer. There is no delay when saving the file, just when running a design. This has been corrected.
The following issues apply to the Sizer Stand-alone installation; they are also addressed in Service Release 3 of the Design Office installation. .
5. Deletion of Previous Installation in Second Install Folder (Bug 2497)
Installing a minor version such as 9.1 removed the previous service release installations, even if they are installed to a different Program Files folder. This made it difficult to have both versions installed on the same computer.
This has been corrected and installing 9.21 allows you to retain 9.1 as well. Note that it was always possible to install two major releases, such as 9.x and 8.x, on the same computer.
This version was released only in the Design Office Edition; however the changes below are also present in the Stand-alone edition version 9.21.
A. Materials Database
6. Southern Pine Design Values (Feature 176)
The changes to Southern Pine dimensional lumber design values due to the Addendum to the NDS 2005 released in March 2012 by AWC, effective June 1, 2012, have been implemented.
a) Sizes Affected
These affect only Southern Pine sections that are 2-4” thick and 2-4” wide (deep). All Fb, Ft, and Fc and E values have changed, and in most cases are significantly weaker.
b) Member Types
The changes have been made for built-up beams, built-up columns, joists, and wall studs.
c) Mixed Southern Pine
Note that the addendum also addresses Mixed Southern Pine 2-4” wide, however WoodWorks includes only timber sizes of Mixed SP, 6’ width and greater, so no design values have changed in the WoodWorks database.
d) E value
The changed E value applies to only those section depths, or widths in AWC terminology, listed in the Addendum. Therefore, unlike all other materials, the E value can be different for different section depths. The E value shown in database editor is the E for the depths shown in the Addendum; however internally Sizer applies the previous E value to all other depths.
7. New Joist Materials (Feature 78)
The following materials selections have been added for roof and floor joists in Sizer. These will appear in version 9.2 even if you choose to retain you material customisations from previous versions, however, if you do so, it will be necessary to activate the new materials using Database Editor.
a) Built-up Joists
Sizer now allows you to select built-up lumber joists to implement designs in which joists are doubled up. A database file has been added to the installation containing only joist members that are 2” nominal thick (1.5” actual) for built-up design. The number of plies for built-up joists is limited to 2 to avoid designing unrealistic members.
Refer to Bug
b) LVL Joists
Sizer now allows you to select LVL materials as joists; it was previously limited to LVL beams. A built-up joist LVL database has been included, allowing you to double up the joists. Note that unlike the built-up lumber joist database, the thicker 3.5” sections are included, and if these are selected, the number of plies should be set to 1. The number of plies is limited to 2 to avoid designing unrealistic members.
8. Sill Plate Deactivated after Database Editor File Operation (Bug 2457)
If you activated, deactivated or added a database file in Database Editor the program deactivated all sill plate materials that are used for bearing design in Sizer. The next time Sizer is run, a message warning you that you do not have sill plate materials appears on start up, and sill plate does not appear as a choice of bearing materials. This has been corrected.
If you have experienced this problem already, then in order to restore your sill plate materials, it is necessary during installation of this service release to indicate that you do not wish to retain your database customisations from the previous installation, by deselecting the Material Database – Standard selection in the Installation Options box that appears during the installation.
If you do not wish to lose your database customisations, contact WoodWorks Technical support for instructions on how to reactivate the sill plate materials without losing other database changes.
9. Crash for Deactivated Support Member Materials (Bug 2378)
10. Copy Database File (Database Editor Feature 7)
A button has been added to the Database Editor tool bar that allows you to copy an existing database to be used as a template for creating a new database file. If a standard (uneditable) database file was used as the basis for copying, the program turns it into a custom (editable) database file.
U. Engineering Design
1. Bearing Length for CB factor for Wall Supports (Bug 2401)
For the bearing design of the bottom plate of a wall introduced with version 9, the bearing length used in bearing factor CB calculations was the width d of the wall stud rather than its thickness b, even though the thickness is reported as the bearing length used. The thickness is now used, as it is the parallel-to-grain dimension.
As a result, the CB factor for a 3.5” stud was 1.12, and for a 5.5” stud was 1.02, rather than the correct 1.25 for a typical stud thickness of 1.5”.
Note that this applies only when the box for Bearing at support end is unchecked, otherwise CB is 1.0.
This problem was introduced along with bearing design for user-input supports in Version 9.
2. Load Sharing and System Factor (Bug 2406)
The following refinements have been made regarding the designation of repetitive member for different member types, and the application of the system factor Cr.
a) Solid Beams
For sawn lumber and SCL beams, the program now allows you to specify that it is part of a system of repetitive members, with Repetitive member unchecked by default. You check it only if you know that the beams are to be spaced not more than 24” apart, in which case the Cr. factor is applied. If a beam is designated as repetitive, a design note appears in the output giving the required spacing.
b) Glulam Joists
For glulam members used as a joist, the program now disables the repetitive member checkbox and sets it to unchecked, as the NDS does not include a Cr factor for glulam joists. Note that glulam joists can only be entered into Sizer by creating a new database file in Database Editor.
The output specification of the repetitive member choice now appears in the output for SCL materials, previously it was missing.
3. Glulam Weak Axis Emin value for Buckling (Bug 2471)
a) Emin for Beam CL Factor
When the width of a glulam beam is narrower than the depth, so that there is a CL factor, and the beam is loaded on the weak axis, the program was using the Ey,min for the beam lateral stability factor CL (NDS 3.3.3), but should be using Ex, min. This has been corrected.
b) Emin Value Reported for Columns with Combined Loading
When columns are loaded axially and laterally, the program outputs the Emin or Emin,y value used for combined axial and bending design only, even though a different one may have been used for axial design or for the calculation of the CP lateral stability factor, in which case the choice depends on column slenderness ratio. Now, if both Emin and Emin,y are used, they are output on separate lines in the output report. If only Emin,y is used, it is shown as Eminy, whereas it used to just say Emin.
4. Crash on Notched Design for Unknown Joist Depth (Bug 2417)
When designing unknown sections with notches, if the section examined for design does not pass the restrictions based on maximum notch depth, but earlier ones did, the program crashed. This happened despite the fact that larger sections will not violate the notch restrictions if smaller ones didn't, because the program proceeds to examine shallower sections that are wider, and sections made from different materials.
For this reason, this problem occurred intermittently, for example inputting ¼” as the notch depth is fine, inputting 3" causes a crash, and inputting 6" results in a message that it cannot find a section, which was correct given the notch restrictions.
This has been corrected.
5. Fire Design with Metric Units (Bug 2477)
When using metric units, the IBC fire endurance calculated by the program was 25 times smaller than it should be, that is, 2-3 minutes instead of 60+ minutes when in imperial.
6. Wall Supporting Members for Beams (Change 120)*
The program now allows beams to be supported by walls in beam mode, in order to take into account the compressive resistance of a wall top plate. Wall supports are still not allowed for beams in concept mode; a column usually representing built up wall studs must be embedded in the wall.
V. Loads Analysis
1. Unfactored Reactions for Pattern Load Combination (Bug 2298)
For a load type that is patterned (i.e. L or S), the
program showed in the Reactions and
Bearing table the unfactored reaction for that type from the critical factored
load combination if it is a pattern combination, rather than the largest
unfactored reaction for that type from any pattern load combination. As the
main purpose of this table is to manually use these reactions to load a
supporting member, the supporting member would not necessarily have been loaded
with the heaviest load possible for that load type.
The program now uses the load unfactored reaction from the load combination with the heaviest reaction for that load type.
2. Analysis of Point Loads at End of Cantilever (Bug 2433)
If the point load is located at the end of a cantilever, due to small rounding errors, it is sometimes not being included in the loads analysis. This problem has always been in the software but is rarely encountered.
W. Beam and Column Mode Operation
1. Notch Depth Updating (Bug 2416)
On rare occasions, when you tried to enter a notch depth, it would not register, that is, it would not be used for design, would appear as zero in the output reports, and would be sometimes refreshed as zero in the input screen.
The possibility of this happening has been trapped and prevented.
2. Span Input Corruption for Long Spans (Bug 2455)
Occasionally, for multi-span beams with long spans, the span lengths entered become scrambled when constructing the beam model and beam design is not possible. This has been corrected
3. Update of Supporting Member Properties (Bug 2385)
After changing the supporting member material or species, sometimes the selections from the previous materials species or grade, respectively, were retained rather than the appropriate choices for the new controlling selection. This has been corrected.
4. Analysis Diagrams Crash after File Renamed (Bug 2422)
If a member had been designed then saved to a different filename, and you then clicked the analysis diagrams button without re-running the design first, the program would crash. This has been corrected.
5. Critical Analysis Diagrams for Multiple Documents (Bug 2423)
When navigating between the analysis diagrams of several open documents, the diagrams showed the most recently updated document's critical analysis diagrams, instead of the active document's critical results. The critical diagrams were only correctly updated if you were to then select an item in the load combinations drop down menu, or re-run design. The program now shows the analysis diagrams from the file you most recently viewed.
6. Checking Integrity of Default Loads (Bug 2370)
The program now checks the integrity of the default loads that you can now save for each member type as the Loads.wsz file is read in, and starts the program without default loads if it is found to be faulty. Previously the program would crash if this happened, however corruption of this file rarely happens.
X. Results Output
1. Unfactored Strength Results for Custom Post/Timber Sections (Bug 2453)
For custom sections of lumber beams from the “Beam and Stringer” classification listed in 4D , the bending strength Fb shown in the Factors table of the Additional Data was the one for the “Post and Timber” grades from Table 4D , However, the resulting moment resistance Fb' value shown in the Force vs Resistance table was derived from the correct “Post and timber” Fb, and this was the value used for design. This is therefore a display issue only, which has been corrected.
2. Column Deflection Diagram Units (Bug 2435)
For columns, the lateral deflection values displayed in the Beam Graphs were the metric mm equivalent to a displacement in inches, even when imperial is the unit system selected and "in" is shown on the diagram. That is, a deflection of .1" was showing up as 2.54". This has been corrected.
3. Tributary Width Format in Design Check Output (Bug 2440)
When metric units are selected, the tributary width for area loads shown in the loads tables in the analysis and design results is expressed in inches, to the closest whole inch. This has been corrected.
4. Critical Deflection Combinations for Deflection with No Live or No Permanent Loads (Change 106)
If there are no loads on the member that would lead to live deflection, the program no longer outputs a line showing the critical load combination for this case. Previously it was showing the first load combination in the list, leading to paradoxical output like self-weight-only being critical for live deflection, because there were no live loads at all.
5. Reporting of 0.5D + L Load Combination for IBC 1604.3 (d) (Bug 2341)
In the "Critical load combinations" section of the Design Results, and in the Deflection Analysis Diagram, the load combination 0.5D + L arising from the option in Load view for IBC 2009 Table 1604.3 note (d) is presented as D + 0.5L.
This combination also appears for live-only deflection, giving the impression that only half the live load is included.
This had no effect on design; it is just a reporting error that has been corrected.
Y. Concept Mode
1. Concept Mode Default Pattern Loading (Change 108)
The program now asks you whether all patternable loads (live and snow) on a member that is transferred from concept mode to beam mode should be patterned, and if the answer is “yes” it patterns them. If you agree to pattern the loads, it means that the design in beam mode will no longer be identical to that from Concept Mode.
2. Default Load Face for Wall Studs Transferred from Concept (Bug 2361)
Starting with version 9 of the program, when a stud wall is created in Concept Mode and then the stud transferred into Column Mode, the default wall stud loading surface for lateral forces was the depth d and not width b. This has been changed back to using the width b, which is how almost all walls are loaded.
3. Concept Mode Unit System Change (Bug 2443)
While in Concept Mode, when switching between Metric and Imperial units, the program behaviour was inconsistent and unpredictable. Sometimes the grid co-ordinates for the new unit system would appear on the screen, but the previous unit system would still be in the Format settings when you returned to them. At other times, the co-ordinates for the new unit system would not appear on the screen. This has been corrected and the new unit system immediately appears, and is in the Format settings when you return to them.
4. Joist Spacing in Roof and Floor Group Input (Bug 2441)
When working in imperial units, a fractional value that equals 1/640 the metric value of the joist spacing appeared as a default in the Concept Mode Group dialog instead of the correct joist spacing. That is, instead of 400, the value 5/8 appeared.
This value was used to design the joist area and to create loads for joist members exported to Beam Mode. This occurred even when the group dialog box was not opened.
If the unit system was changed, the metric value is converted to that fractional value, rather than the correct imperial joist spacing.
Z. General Program Operation
1. Streamline Network Version Setup (Design Office Feature 8)
The procedure to set up multiple users running the program from a network server has been streamlined, as follows:
a) Copying of Sizer.ini file.
Previously, you had to manually copy a version of the Sizer.ini file to all the client machines. The program now does this automatically.
It is still necessary to modify the Sizer.ini in the server to indicate it is a network version and give the location of the program on the server. A new step is required, to copy the files from the Program Data area of the server for All Users to the corresponding folder in the Program Files area of the server. In other words, the Sizer.ini file on the server will be found in one of the following locations
Windows 7 - C:\ProgramData\WoodWorks\CWC\USA\9\
Windows XP - C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\WoodWorks\CWC\USA\9\
After modification, it has to be copied (not only moved) to the following location, if the default installation was selected:
C:\Program Files (x86)\Woodworks\USA\Sizer\
The advantage of this approach is that the file has to be copied only once, and within one machine, rather than distributed to several machines.
b) Modification of Database.ini File
With the introduction of new locations for database and setting files with Version 9, the network installation required you to modify the file Database.ini by indicating it was a network installation. This is no longer necessary.
c) Instructions in “Read Me” File
The instructions in the Sizer Read Me file have been modified to explain the new procedure. In addition, the following corrections have been made:
The instructions regarding key code security instruct you to contact WoodWorks sales, rather than using a key code that is delivered with the software.
Instructions were given for those users who wish to modify the database files on their local machine using Database Editor on the server. These have been removed, as this procedure is not possible.
2. Version Number in Program Name (Change 104)
Sizer now has the version number in the name of the program that appears in the program title bar, and over icons that appear in the start menu. This enables you to quickly identify the version of the program you are running.
3. Windows File Associations – Project Files (Bug 2419)
Starting with version 9 of the program, the project files with extensions wprj ( workspace), wwb (beam), wwc (column), wwa (Concept) were not associated with the WoodWorks program, so that they did not appear in the list of known file extensions in Windows Default Programs Control Panel group, and that double-clicking on the file did not open it in Sizer. This has been corrected.
4. Windows File Associations – Data Files (Bug 2448)
The following changes apply to the Sizer output files, that is, files with the extension .w[bc][acdg] bc is beam or column, acdg is analysis output ,design check, design run, or analysis graphs, and also concept files .wd (design by group), .wdm (design by member), and .wml ( materials list).
a) File Icons
For all of the Sizer output files shown in Windows Explorer, the generic icon showing a blank page has been changed to show a similar icon to those for the files in the toolbar, with the addition of a small replica of the Woodworks logo. If there is no toolbar button accessing the file, than an icon representing a lines on a page with the logo is shown.
b) Double-click Action
When you double click any of the text output files or analysis graphs, the corresponding project file now opens in Sizer and immediately shows the output file in the Sizer viewer. This is the same result as currently can be achieved by dragging the file into the Sizer.
Note that the text files are associated with Sizer and not the Windows Notepad application, which would be advantageous if you wanted to edit the file. However, Notepad can be associated on the Windows 7 operating system only, not in XP or Vista. For this reason, association with Notepad will be deferred until Windows 7 and later versions of Windows are exclusively used.
c) File Descriptions
The files now have descriptions that show up in Windows Explorer in the Type column and in the description of the selected file at the bottom. These descriptions are of the form e.g. WoodWorks Sizer Beam Results, WoodWorks Sizer Column Graphs, WoodWorks Sizer Concept Results by Member, etc.
The program now also has descriptions for names to the project files – WoodWorks Sizer Project (.wprj), WoodWorks Sizer Concept Mode (.wwa), WoodWorks Sizer Beam (.wwb.), and WoodWorks Sizer Column (.wwc).
The following problem was introduced with Sizer 9.15:
1. Crash or Error Message upon Change in Member Type
When the member type is changed before a span length is entered, then in some cases Sizer crashes, and in other cases Sizer issues an error message saying that the program should be reinstalled. You can ignore this message and proceed.
This service release was released as a “patch” that could be downloaded into the Design Office installation or the Sizer Stand-alone installation.
1. Proposed Southern Pine
WoodWorks has added a proposed Southern Pine database file corresponding to each of the dimension lumber database files. This material database contains all the same information as the standard lumber databases, except that the Southern Pine species has revised values, and does not include the Dense and Non-dense grades.
The revised values are taken from the Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB) Proposed Design Values, based on the SPIB submittal to the American Lumber Standard Committee (ALSC) in October 2011. These values are still pending approval by the ALSC Board of Review.
2. Southern Pine Support Material Crash (Bug 2340)
The program would shut down after trying to design any member that has a beam bearing support made of Southern Pine timber. This has been corrected.
3. Saving of Repeated Point Loads (Bug 2348)
Starting with version 9 of the program, point loads that were created by "Repeating Point Loads", were saved with the project file. This has been corrected.
4. Inconsistency in Shear Design Search vs. Design Check (Change 100)
Unknown design searches would sometimes report sections as passing, but performing a full design on the section results in a failed design. This was because Sizer was assuming the same load combination would be critical for the design of all sections. However, sometimes the section size does influence the critical loading, such as the distance d for which one ignores the effect of loads in determining critical shear. In rare cases they can cause the critical load combination to change from one section size to another, so that the program is designing for a non-critical combination. This has been corrected and the program determines the critical combination for each section considered
5. Column Self-weight (Change 97)
The new load format for self-weight (see Change 80, version 9.1) did not make sense for columns, as it referred to horizontal "weight" and not axial weight. This has been corrected.
6. Glulam Emin Note (Change 98)
A note in database editor input for glulam materials states that Emin = 0.528E.
7. Missing Database File for Supporting Members (Change 96)
If a project had a supporting member with a material type whose database file no longer is active in Sizer, the program would not open. To correct this, a message box informs you that a database file is missing, and you can still design with only the main member bearing being considered for the supports that have the missing material data.
8. Selection of Single Member Width (Change 100)
The program was selecting “unknown” when there was only choice of width (thickness), when it should have selected the single width. This affects joist and wall databases that have only 2” thicknesses.
9. Concentrated Load Persistence
a) Default Loads (Change 102)
Concentrated Loads can now be saved as part of the default loads that were introduced with USA 9.
b) Save to Project File (Change 103)
Starting with version 9, the program did not save concentrated loads to file project file. This has been corrected.
- “Loadface” changed to “load face”.
- “Supports” changed to “Support” in Bearing table.
- Removed unnecessary capitals in All load combinations (LCs) are listed in the Analysis output.
- Adjust placement of Vf, Mf, Vr, Mr slightly.
- Accuracy of deflection in inches increased to 3 from 2 digits.
11. Units in Modification Factor Table for I-joists (Change 93*)
For version 9.12 (Change 90), the program added the units in mpi or psi to the modification factor table heading. Since these don't apply to I-Joists, they were removed for them
1. Unknown Species/Grade Crash ( Bug 2338)
a) Sizer was crashing when running a design in which the material species or grade was specified as “unknown” but the section width and depth were fully specified.
1. Concept Mode Design Failure (Bug 2336)
A corrupted source file was introduced into Sizer 9.12 (Service Release 1b), that has the potential to alter the program in a variety of ways. One such problem was that Concept mode would not design, and report missing database files instead.
1. Load Type Dropdown List (Bug 2329)
For version 9.1, the Load Type input choices were inadvertently reverted to the ones for version 8.0 and before. This had the following implications
a) Live Roof vs. Construction Loads
The Roof live load type was changed to Construction. When selected, you are actually entering a Roof live load, and it behaves as such in loads analysis and is shown Roof live in the output. This has been corrected, and it again says “Roof live” in the dropdown list.
The Construction load input was changed to Roof live for version 8.1 of the program; refer to item B7 under version 8.1 below. Since that time, Construction loads are specified via the checkboxes in the Load types and combinations data group of the Load Input view. Refer to item B1 for version 8.2 for a change relating to this.
b) Earthquake Loads
The Earthquake load type input was inadvertently dropped from the list. Earthquake loads had been introduced in version 9.0 of the program. The ability to specify Earthquake loads has been restored.
2. Sizer Help File Activation (Bug 2330)
Starting with Version 8 of the program, the Sizer help file did not activate when selected from the Help File menu. It was necessary to go to the Help Icon in the Start menu to run it. This has been corrected and it runs from the program.
3. Design Code Information
a) IBC Edition in Welcome and Building Codes Boxes (Bug 2231)
The IBC edition was not updated in the Welcome box or the Building Codes box when the program was updated from IBC 2006 to IBC 2009 for version 9. This has been corrected. In addition, the box now mentions that the UBC load combinations were dropped for Version 9.
b) Design Codes In the About Sizer Box (Bug 2232)
The design codes in the About Sizer box for version 9 were appropriate to Shearwalls, not Sizer. The references to the ASCE 7 and the AWC Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic have now been changed to the NDS 2005.
Note that the correct edition of the IBC (2009) was displayed.
c) Design Code Note (Change 91)
A note has been added to the Design Notes giving the design codes the program complies with - NDS 2005 and IBC 2009.
4. Wide Face Sizer Factor for Redwood and Baldcypress (Bug 2259)
The Size factor from NDS 2005 Table 4D to be used when loads are applied to the wide face of timber beams and stringers was in fact applying the factor to Redwood and Baldcypress species, even though these do not have beam and stringer categories. This has been corrected. Refer to item A2 from the Sizer 9.1 release, below.
5. Beam Input
a) Bearing Width for I Joists (Change 84)
b) The bearing width entry has been disabled for I-joists
c) Capitalization of Input Choices (Change 86)
The capitalisation of recently added items such as Span Type and Support locations was not consistent with the rest of the program. This has been corrected.
6. Design Check Output
a) fc/fcp in Bearing Table (Change 87)
In the bearing design table, "fc/fcp sup" has been changed to show "fc" or "fcp" if all the supports are columns or all are beams, respectively.
b) Organization of Additional Data Section (Change 88)
The format for the Additional data output has been reorganised slightly, with subtitles for CRITICAL LOAD COMBINATIONS, and CALCULATIONS.
c) Units for f/E Values in Modification Factors Table (Change 90)
The units (psi or MPa) for the f and E values in the Modification Factors table in the Additional Data table are now shown next to "f/E", for all materials except I-joists, for which the Mr, Vr, and EI values have different units.
7. Print Banner in Design Check (Change 89)
A print banner has been added to the Design Check output on pages after the first page, similar to the banner that appears in all other output reports on all pages. It shows the program version, date, time, and page number.
This update to service release 9.1 was included in the Design Office 9 service release 1a, but Sizer Stand-alone Service Release 1 contains Sizer 9.11.
1. False Section Sizes in Concept Mode Design By Groups (Bug 2324)
Starting with version 9 of the program, in the Results by Group section of the Concept Mode design results, Sizer sometimes reports a member for a particular group that is significantly weaker then the members designed for the individual members from that Group in the “Results by Member”. When transferred to beam mode, the program designs for the same section size as in “Results by Member.” When the section size from “Results by Group” is designed in beam mode, the member fails, sometimes by a wide margin. The member reported in Results by Group is therefore not related to the actual passing design for the individual members in the group, and in some cases even has a section size different from the one selected by the user in the Design Groups input.
This occurs only when the width of the member that passes design is larger than the smallest width in the database, for example a 6 x member when there are 4 x members in the database. It therefore does not occur for dimension lumber members in the standard database files, which only have 2” widths in the database. It does occur for timber and glulam members.
2. Construction Loads in Place of Live Loads (Change 83 – Corrected in Version 9.0)
The following problem was in fact corrected for version 9.0, but was only discovered since that time:
Starting with version 8.1 of the program, in Concept mode the program sometimes converted live loads to construction loads before designing the member. This was not evident until you exported the member to beam mode. As a result the design values for Concept mode contain a 1.25 load duration factor, instead of 1.0, making the program design for weaker members than intended. This problem occurs intermittently and it is necessary to check Concept mode designs made with versions 8.1-8.3 to verify if the problem occurred for any of your projects.
This version of Sizer addresses the following bug fixes and small improvements to the program. It was not released for Sizer Standalone, which includes Sizer 9.11 (see above).
A. Engineering Design
1. Tapered Notch Maximum Depth (Bug 2243)
Sizer was not considering the exception in NDS 2005 5.4.4 for the maximum notch depth for tapered glulam members.
Ordinarily the notch depth restriction for glulam is 2/5 of the member, but for tapered notches it is 2/3 of the member, as long as the notch is less than 3d long. When the program encounters a notch depth that violates the restrictions, it
- issues a warning message when the design button is pressed,
- reports a design criterion failure “Invalid notch depth”
- places “N/A” in the table for critical shear results
When a tapered notch depth is between 2/5 and 2/3 of the member depth, version 9 was creating these error messages, when it should have allowed tapered notches of that depth, and did in previous versions of the program. This has been corrected.
2. Size Factor for Timber Members (Bug 2259)
a) Size Factor for Timber Members Loads Applied to Wide Face
NDS 2005 Table 4D provides size factors to be used when loads are applied to the wide face of timber beams and stringers, but Sizer did not implement these size factors. This resulted in capacities that are too high for select structural and No 1 materials, by app 15% and 25% respectively. They are now applied to these members, for all materials except Southern Pine and Redwood, which do not have “beam and stringer” categorisation.
b) Size Factor for Custom Sections Greater then 12” Depth
For custom sections, the size factor from NDS 2005 Table 4D to be applied to timber sections 12" or greater for custom sections was being applied only for Southern Pine materials. Note that there are no greater than 12” members in the standard database files, so this problem applied to any such member created except those from custom database files. The factor is now applied for all members. Note that it is applied to Southern Pine, Mixed Southern Pine, Redwood and Baldcypress, even though they are not categorised as beam, stringer, post or timber, at the directive of the American Wood Council, which intends to modify the NDS wording to indicate this.
c) Combination of Size Factors
- The Size factors are now being applied independently to x- and y-axis for bi-axially loaded members.
- The wide face size factor is now used in conjunction with the size factor for member depths greater than 12" in the unusual circumstance depth is the narrow face, for example a 16 x 14 member.
3. Interior Spans Cantilever Deflection Reporting (Bug 2320)
If a cantilever governs deflection design overall but the interior spans govern one or more of the deflection checks (permanent, live, total),
then in the output report the cantilever deflections were incorrectly reporting the interior span deflection values for those checks that were not governed by the cantilever. This has been corrected.
4. Span Length for Deflection (Change 64)
The span lengths used in the deflection limits and ratios calculations were using the wrong span length. They were using the span length based on whichever span type you had selected (clear span, full span, etc) instead of using the design span.
5. Bearing Factor CB
a) CB Factor for Minimum Bearing Length (Change 74)
CB factor was not being applied to the minimum bearing length, resulting in the Lb and min Lb not being equal when designing for unknown bearing length.
b) CB Factor Cap (Change 75)
CB factor for bearing lengths < 0.5” is now capped at 1.75, in the lowest value in Table 3.10.4. Use of the equation 3.10-2 results in a extremely high minimum bearing lengths as one approaches .375.
6. Compressive Strength fc/fcp Output (Change 76)
The fc/fcp sup value (Compressive strength fcp or fc value of supporting member) reported in bearing table was outputting incorrectly when Imperial units were selected in the settings due to an incorrect unit conversion when outputting the value.
7. I-joist Crash for Point Load at Left Cantilever End (Bug 2247)
When a floor or roof joist project with a material of I-joist, a left cantilever and a point load applied to the end of the cantilever (X=0) sometimes crashed upon running design. This did not occur all of the time. It no longer happens.
8. Ignore Cantilever Deflection Setting Default (Bug 1381)
The default setting in the program was to ignore cantilever deflections when designing, however, since this was non-conservative, the default setting has been changed to not ignore cantilever deflections.
9. Modification Factors for I-joists (Bug 2218)*
The additional data factors table now shows the Mr Vr, EI values for I-joists, and the “-“s in the table have been updated to better reflect factors applicable to I-joists.
AA. Analysis of Loads
1. IBC 1604.3d Deflection Factor in Concept Mode (Bug 2233)
The IBC 1604.3d deflection factor setting Use L + .5D was always applied in Concept mode, (except for wet service conditions) even when the setting is unchecked in beam mode and you say "Apply Options to concept Mode." Furthermore, it was applied even when the
creep factor from NDS 3.5.2 is also applied, and these settings are supposed to be mutually exclusive.
The program now applies this setting correctly to Concept mode.
2. Oblique Angle Deflections in Analysis Diagrams (Bug 2176)
The deflections shown in the analysis diagram for oblique angles were the ones that would occur on an un-rotated beam. The maximum deflections show in the upper left of the diagram are for the rotated beam, were for a rotated beam, thus different than the maxima shown in the diagram and creating confusion.
The diagram now shows the same deflection as those calculated for the maximum deflection shown in the diagram and in the design results, which is the vector sum of the deflections in the x- and y- directions.
BB. Materials and Databases
1. E Value for Western Cedar Columns (Bug 2042)
The Timber Other column database for Western Cedar No 1 and SS had an E value of 100,000 rather than 1,000,000 PSI as per the NDS Supplement.
2. Crash when Custom Material Name Changes (Bug 2274)
The program crashes when the user has changed a material type, species, or grade name in a custom database so that the name of the material in the project file is not in the database. The program now shows message box informing you of the material and database file that can no longer be found and directs you to use database editor to activate or create that material.
CC. Program Operation
1. Program Data File Locations (Bug 2265)
Because Windows 7 and Windows Vista operating systems do not allow write access to the Program Files folders to those users who are not running the program as Administrator, making it impossible for them to save changes to the material database, settings, and default loads, these files are now placed in a new location by WoodWorks.
It was also necessary for those users who were not administrators on their computers to enter a keycode each time the program was run.
These restrictions were more severe on Windows 7 than Vista.
The program now stores the support files for the program in the following folders
C:\Documents and Settings\[username\]Local Settings\Application Data\WoodWorks\CWC\USA\9\
The program also saves the files to the following folders:
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\WoodWorks\CWC\USA\9\
These are repositories for the files to be copied to each new users’s data folders when they first use the program. This allows a system administrator to install the program, but others to use it without restrictions.
A more complicated set of procedures for network installations is described in the Sizer Read Me file.
2. Wall Transfer to Concept Mode (Bug 2236)
When a wall was transferred from concept mode to beam mode, the program issued a Windows "Invalid argument" message, then did not retain a number of the input fields:
- The lateral support info. The checkbox in the Concept groups for lateral support is checked, but when the wall is transferred to beam mode, both lateral support boxes show unbraced.
- The wall height. It shows up as blank.
- It shows the type as Column, not wall.
- The supporting member is also not properly transferred. This is also a more general problem described in bug 2237.
These issues have been corrected.
3. Transfer of Supporting Members from Concept Mode (Bug 2237)
The support conditions were not properly transferred in concept mode to beam mode:
- For beams and joists, the supports are transferred as "Other non wood" rather than what is supporting the member.
- For columns, the input fields are blank. When designed, the program simply ignores supporting member design.
- For walls, an error message appears, the fields are blank, the choices correspond to columns. If you try to change one of the input fields, the program crashes. If you just go ahead and design without changing, it ignores the support bearing design.
The supporting conditions are now transferred as follows:
- Beam or Joist - Supporting member
- Column - Supporting beam or non-wood if foundation
- Wall - Bottom plate.
A column is considered to be supporting a beam with the d-face parallel to the beam length. The program does not take into account beams supporting each other on an angle, it is analysed as if they were square.
4. Settings from Previous Versions (Change 81)*
If you chose to retain your settings from previous versions of the program to version 9.0, the program was inconsistent and unreliable in retrieving those settings. This has been corrected.
5. I-Joist Custom Sections (Change 65)
Attempting to design a custom sized I-joist section would sometimes crash the program. Now, the program informs you that custom I-Joist sections are not allowed.
6. Retaining Settings from Previous Installations
a) Installation Option (Bug 2254)
For Version 9.0, the Sizer installation no longer allowed you to retain settings from previous installations by indicating during installation that the new factory settings are not to be installed. This has been corrected in the updated Sizer and Design Office installation packages.
b) Settings from Previous Versions (Change 81)*
If you managed to manually retain your settings by saving and copying the sizer.ini file from a previous installation, the program was inconsistent and unreliable in retrieving those settings. This has been corrected.
7. Default Deflection Limits (Change 70)
For version 9 of the program, the default deflection limits in the settings were not being written to the initialisation file, so they no longer functioned as defaults. This has been corrected.
8. Persistence of Start-up Mode Setting (Bug 2256)
When at least one file was open, and you tried to create another new file, the file created was always Concept mode. It is now the default start-up mode in the design settings.
9. Column Mode Combine Loads of Same Type Label (Bug 2238)
In column mode, the "Combine Loads of Same Type in Drawing” checkbox omitted the word "type" that appears in beam mode.
10. Tool Tip for Settings in Toolbar (Bug 2050)
The Settings toolbar icon now includes a "tool tip" that appears when you hover over it saying "Settings".
11. Bearing Length Values in Selection List (Change 67)
The bearing length selection list was sometimes showing the incorrect bearing length if the length is close-to but not equal to the user entered value. (e.g. 3” gets switched to 3-1/2”)
12. Bearing Length Input Activation (Change 68)
Disabled Bearing length input when None or Other non-wood types are selected in column mode.
13. Same As Wall Stud Checkbox for Supporting Member Bearing (Change 69)
Opening a saved wall stud file was always reverting the supporting member's "Same as wall stud" checkbox to checked.
DD. Output and Drawings
1. Concentrated Beam Load Width Units in Text Output (Bug 2240)
For beams, the text output shows the tributary width of a load in feet or m. For concentrated loads, the number displayed is actually inches.
The program now shows an inch symbol (") or "mm" after the concentrated load width to differentiate it from area loads that may also be on the beam.
2. Self-weight Note and Self-weight in Loads Table (Change 80)
The line about self weight has been removed from the material description, and self weight appears as a load in the loads table instead. The message was sometimes misinterpreted.
3. Eccentric Loads Output (Change 71)
The eccentricity reported in the loads output table was outputting the wrong value when imperial units were selected
4. Units in Column Load Diagram (Change 82)
In the column load diagram, the units were not displayed, even though they are displayed in the beam diagram. In particular, axial UDLs did not indicate they are in plf or kN/m, even though the corresponding joist loads are in pounds. The program now shows plf or kN/m by those loads, and beside the scale at the bottom of the diagram.
5. Metric Units in Deflection Diagram (Change 94)*
When metric units were selected, the program was showing the value of deflection in inches, yet labelling them as mm. Thus deflections of 12 mm would show up as 0.5.
6. Metric Units in Deflection Diagram (Change 95)*
Load locations in printed column diagrams were showing up in inches, rather than feet and inches.
7. Sloped Beam Drawing (Change 78)
Sloped member drawing for slightly sloped members no longer draws in the wrong direction.
Version 9.01 released as a “hot fix”, a self-extracting file available from the WoodWorks website to be expanded into the Sizer 9.0 installation. The first Design Office edition that included these changes was Design Office 9, Service Release 1, released July 29, 2011.
*Note that the description of changes for this hot fix was not included in this document until Aug 24, 2011, that is, it was not in the versions of this document included with Sizer 9.1, 9.11, or 9.12.
All of the following problems were introduced in version 9 of the software.
1. Non-dead Loads Duplicated as Live Load In Concept Mode (Bug 2232)
When a non-dead , non-live load (snow, wind, roof live, earthquake, or impact) was added to a member in concept mode that did not also have a live load, the loads created from reactions on the members below included an extra live load of the same magnitude as the other non-dead load. This load was used for design of the supporting member, leading to overly conservative sizing, and is also distributed to members further down the structure.
In a typical case, roofs loaded with only snow and dead loads are supported by members that are given an extra live load with the same magnitude as the snow reaction, in addition to the snow reaction load. This extra load could be eliminated by placing a live load with negligible magnitude on the roof.
The problem only occurred when the original supported member is designed for dry service conditions.
2. Critical Member in Design Groups for Multi-ply Members (Bug 2242)
The program did not properly take the number of plies into account when determining the member of a design group with the largest cross-sectional area, leading it to misidentify the critical member in a design group in Concept Mode.
3. Crash on Design of New I-joist Project (Bug 2223)
When designing a new floor joist or roof joist project with I-joist as the material, a crash would result. If this happened after saving, the project was saved and could be opened and designed without a crash occurring.
4. Crash in Concept Mode for 6-Span Beam with Left-end Cantilever (Bug 2231)
In Concept mode, Sizer crashed when trying to design a 6-span beam with a left-end cantilever.
5. Crash for Left Cantilever Beams with Specified Lateral Support (Bug 2246)
Sizer hangs and freezes the computer when accessing Loads view for beams and joists with left cantilever and lateral support other than "At supports" or "Full" ( a numeric value) , for operating systems other than Windows 7.
6. Deletion of Spans in Cantilevered Beams (Bug 2226)
Trying to delete any cantilevered span or the non-cantilever span on a 2-span cantilevered beam, causes the program to crash.
Deleting the middle non-cantilevered span on a 3-span, doubly cantilevered beam creates a corrupted beam that cannot be designed.
This document describes the features and other changes that were implemented for Version 9 of the WoodWorks Sizer USA program. A more extensive and illustrative description of these features is included in the Sizer installation in Sizer Version 9 USA Features.
The most extensive changes are
Other notable improvements are
The following table of contents can be used to navigate to specific items.